---
title: "R Notebook: 26-01"
output: html_notebook
---
Create a matrix 2 * 3 consisting of 0:
```{r}
matrix(0, nrow=2, ncol=3)
```
Arrange a vector of 12 values into matrix 3 * 4 arrange by rows:
```{r}
v <- 1:12
m <- matrix(v, n=3, ncol=4, byrow = TRUE)
m
```
Sum of every row in a matrix:
```{r}
rowSums(m)
```
Recall: how to create a sample of 0 and 1 of size 10.
```{r}
sample(c(0, 1), 10, replace = TRUE)
```
Experiment from the lecture: toss a coin 10 times and repeat this sequence 10000 times:
```{r}
tosses <- 10
samples <- 10000
dat <- matrix(sample(c(0, 1), tosses * samples, replace=TRUE), ncol=tosses, byrow=TRUE)
```
Calculate `phats` - proportions of heads in each experiment:
```{r}
pbar <- rowSums(dat) / tosses
hist(pbar, breaks=tosses, xlim=c(0, 1))
```
Test $H_0: p = 0.5$:
```{r}
binom.test(3, 10, p=0.5) # 3 out of 10 - a fair coin?
binom.test(2, 10) # 2 out of 10 - a fair coin?
binom.test(1, 10) # 1 out of 10 - a fair coin?
```
Load some dataset and check some null hypothesis with binomial test.
```{r}
df <- read.csv("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/LingData2019/LingData/master/seminars/26-01/poetry_last_in_lines.csv", sep = "\t")
```
Suggest your hypotheses about p of nouns. Look at frequencies:
```{r}
table(df$UPoS)
table(df$UPoS)/sum(table(df$UPoS))
```
Is it enough to make conclusions? No, proceed to formal tests:
```{r}
# select lines with nouns
nouns <- df[df$UPoS=='NOUN',]
total <- nrow(df) # number of trials
nnouns <- nrow(nouns) # number of successes
```
```{r}
# H0: p = 0.6
binom.test(nnoun, total, p = 0.6)
# not reject (correct)
# not reject != accept != H0 holds
```
```{r}
# H0: p = 0.4
binom.test(nnouns, total, 0.4) # p=0.4
```
```{r}
# choose lines with one-syllable words at the end
one_syll <- df[df$RhymedNsyl == 1, ]
nrow(one_syll)
nrow(one_syll[one_syll$UPoS == "NOUN", ])
binom.test(32, 43, p=0.6)
```
```{r}
# you can test on your own for every number of syllables
table(df$RhymedNsyl)
```