An administrative note intended for its editor. It may not be included in the publication version of the ontology, so it should contain nothing necessary for end users to understand the ontology. editor note If R <- P o Q is a defining property chain axiom, then it also holds that R -> P o Q. Note that this cannot be expressed directly in OWL is a defining property chain axiom If R <- P o Q is a defining property chain axiom, then (1) R -> P o Q holds and (2) Q is either reflexive or locally reflexive. A corollary of this is that P SubPropertyOf R. is a defining property chain axiom where second argument is reflexive a core relation that holds between a part and its whole part of part of a core relation that holds between a whole and its part has part has part x is preceded by y if and only if the time point at which y ends is before or equivalent to the time point at which x starts. Formally: x preceded by y iff ω(y) <= α(x), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point. preceded by x precedes y if and only if the time point at which x ends is before or equivalent to the time point at which y starts. Formally: x precedes y iff ω(x) <= α(y), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point. precedes a relation between a specifically dependent continuant (the characteristic) and any other entity (the bearer), in which the characteristic depends on the bearer for its existence. characteristic of Inverse of characteristic_of has characteristic has characteristic a relation between a continuant and a process, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process participates in a relation between a process and a continuant, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process has participant has participant a relation between a function and an independent continuant (the bearer), in which the function specifically depends on the bearer for its existence function of a relation between a quality and an independent continuant (the bearer), in which the quality specifically depends on the bearer for its existence quality of a relation between a role and an independent continuant (the bearer), in which the role specifically depends on the bearer for its existence role of a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a function, in which the function specifically depends on the bearer for its existence has function a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a quality, in which the quality specifically depends on the bearer for its existence has quality a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a role, in which the role specifically depends on the bearer for its existence has role a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a disposition, in which the disposition specifically depends on the bearer for its existence has disposition inverse of has disposition disposition of a relation between two independent continuants, the location and the target, in which the target is entirely within the location location of a relation between two independent continuants, the target and the location, in which the target is entirely within the location located in This is redundant with the more specific 'independent and not spatial region' constraint. We leave in the redundant axiom for use with reasoners that do not use negation. This is redundant with the more specific 'independent and not spatial region' constraint. We leave in the redundant axiom for use with reasoners that do not use negation. A 'has regulatory component activity' B if A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A has_component B and A is regulated by B. has regulatory component activity A relationship that holds between a GO molecular function and a component of that molecular function that negatively regulates the activity of the whole. More formally, A 'has regulatory component activity' B iff :A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A has_component B and A is negatively regulated by B. has negative regulatory component activity A relationship that holds between a GO molecular function and a component of that molecular function that positively regulates the activity of the whole. More formally, A 'has regulatory component activity' B iff :A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A has_component B and A is positively regulated by B. has positive regulatory component activity has component activity w 'has process component' p if p and w are processes, w 'has part' p and w is such that it can be directly disassembled into into n parts p, p2, p3, ..., pn, where these parts are of similar type. has component process directly regulated by Process(P2) is directly negatively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 negatively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding negatively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 directly negatively regulated by P1. directly negatively regulated by Process(P2) is directly negatively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 negatively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding negatively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 directly negatively regulated by P1. Process(P2) is directly postively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 positively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding positively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 is directly postively regulated by P1. directly positively regulated by Process(P2) is directly postively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 positively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding positively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 is directly postively regulated by P1. A 'has effector activity' B if A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A 'has component activity' B and B is the effector (output function) of B. Each compound function has only one effector activity. has effector activity A 'has effector activity' B if A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A 'has component activity' B and B is the effector (output function) of B. Each compound function has only one effector activity. ends after immediately preceded by immediately precedes x overlaps y if and only if there exists some z such that x has part z and z part of y overlaps true x only in taxon y if and only if x is in taxon y, and there is no other organism z such that y!=z a and x is in taxon z. only in taxon x is in taxon y if an only if y is an organism, and the relationship between x and y is one of: part of (reflexive), developmentally preceded by, derives from, secreted by, expressed. in taxon A is spatially_disjoint_from B if and only if they have no parts in common spatially disjoint from w 'has component' p if w 'has part' p and w is such that it can be directly disassembled into into n parts p, p2, p3, ..., pn, where these parts are of similar type. has component x develops from y if and only if either (a) x directly develops from y or (b) there exists some z such that x directly develops from z and z develops from y develops from inverse of develops from develops into p regulates q iff p is causally upstream of q, the execution of p is not constant and varies according to specific conditions, and p influences the rate or magnitude of execution of q due to an effect either on some enabler of q or some enabler of a part of q. regulates p negatively regulates q iff p regulates q, and p decreases the rate or magnitude of execution of q. negatively regulates p positively regulates q iff p regulates q, and p increases the rate or magnitude of execution of q. positively regulates A relation between a material entity (such as a cell) and a process, in which the material entity has the ability to carry out the process. capable of c stands in this relationship to p if and only if there exists some p' such that c is capable_of p', and p' is part_of p. capable of part of true x adjacent to y if and only if x and y share a boundary. adjacent to temporally related to p has input c iff: p is a process, c is a material entity, c is a participant in p, c is present at the start of p, and the state of c is modified during p. has input x has developmental contribution from y iff x has some part z such that z develops from y has developmental contribution from inverse of has developmental contribution from developmentally contributes to Candidate definition: x developmentally related to y if and only if there exists some developmental process (GO:0032502) p such that x and y both participates in p, and x is the output of p and y is the input of p developmentally preceded by c acts upstream of p if and only if c enables some f that is involved in p' and p' occurs chronologically before p, is not part of p, and affects the execution of p. c is a material entity and f, p, p' are processes. acts upstream of c acts upstream of or within p if c is enables f, and f is causally upstream of or within p. c is a material entity and p is an process. affects acts upstream of or within Inverse of developmentally preceded by developmentally succeeded by p is causally upstream of, positive effect q iff p is casually upstream of q, and the execution of p is required for the execution of q. causally upstream of, positive effect p is causally upstream of, negative effect q iff p is casually upstream of q, and the execution of p decreases the execution of q. causally upstream of, negative effect q characteristic of part of w if and only if there exists some p such that q inheres in p and p part of w. characteristic of part of true A relationship that holds via some environmental process evolutionarily related to A mereological relationship or a topological relationship mereotopologically related to A relationship that holds between entities participating in some developmental process (GO:0032502) developmentally related to c enables p iff c is capable of p and c acts to execute p. enables A grouping relationship for any relationship directly involving a function, or that holds because of a function of one of the related entities. functionally related to this relation holds between c and p when c is part of some c', and c' is capable of p. part of structure that is capable of true c involved_in p if and only if c enables some process p', and p' is part of p involved in inverse of enables enabled by enabled by inverse of regulates regulated by inverse of negatively regulates negatively regulated by inverse of positively regulates positively regulated by inverse of has input input of x spatially_coextensive_with y if and inly if x and y have the same location spatially coextensive with x has developmental potential involving y iff x is capable of a developmental process with output y. y may be the successor of x, or may be a different structure in the vicinity (as for example in the case of developmental induction). has developmental potential involving x has potential to developmentrally contribute to y iff x developmentally contributes to y or x is capable of developmentally contributing to y has potential to developmentally contribute to x has the potential to develop into y iff x develops into y or if x is capable of developing into y has potential to develop into x has potential to directly develop into y iff x directly develops into y or x is capable of directly developing into y has potential to directly develop into inverse of upstream of causally downstream of immediately causally downstream of p indirectly positively regulates q iff p is indirectly causally upstream of q and p positively regulates q. indirectly positively regulates p indirectly negatively regulates q iff p is indirectly causally upstream of q and p negatively regulates q. indirectly negatively regulates relation that links two events, processes, states, or objects such that one event, process, state, or object (a cause) contributes to the production of another event, process, state, or object (an effect) where the cause is partly or wholly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly or wholly dependent on the cause. causally related to relation that links two events, processes, states, or objects such that one event, process, state, or object (a cause) contributes to the production of another event, process, state, or object (an effect) where the cause is partly or wholly responsible for the effect, and the effect is partly or wholly dependent on the cause. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Causality p is causally upstream of q iff p is causally related to q, the end of p precedes the end of q, and p is not an occurrent part of q. causally upstream of p is immediately causally upstream of q iff p is causally upstream of q, and the end of p is coincident with the beginning of q. immediately causally upstream of p is 'causally upstream or within' q iff p is causally related to q, and the end of p precedes, or is coincident with, the end of q. affects causally upstream of or within inverse of causally upstream of or within causally downstream of or within c involved in regulation of p if c is involved in some p' and p' regulates some p involved in regulation of c involved in regulation of p if c is involved in some p' and p' positively regulates some p involved in positive regulation of c involved in regulation of p if c is involved in some p' and p' negatively regulates some p involved in negative regulation of c involved in or regulates p if and only if either (i) c is involved in p or (ii) c is involved in regulation of p involved in or involved in regulation of A relationship that holds between two entities in which the processes executed by the two entities are causally connected. in pairwise interaction with interacts with An interaction relationship in which the two partners are molecular entities that directly physically interact with each other for example via a stable binding interaction or a brief interaction during which one modifies the other. molecularly interacts with phosphorylates The entity A, immediately upstream of the entity B, has an activity that regulates an activity performed by B. For example, A and B may be gene products and binding of B by A regulates the kinase activity of B. A and B can be physically interacting but not necessarily. Immediately upstream means there are no intermediate entity between A and B. molecularly controls directly regulates activity of The entity A, immediately upstream of the entity B, has an activity that negatively regulates an activity performed by B. For example, A and B may be gene products and binding of B by A negatively regulates the kinase activity of B. molecularly decreases activity of directly negatively regulates activity of The entity A, immediately upstream of the entity B, has an activity that positively regulates an activity performed by B. For example, A and B may be gene products and binding of B by A positively regulates the kinase activity of B. molecularly increases activity of directly positively regulates activity of helper property (not for use in curation) is kinase activity A relationship between a material entity and a process where the material entity has some causal role that influences the process causal agent in process p is causally related to q if and only if p or any part of p and q or any part of q are linked by a chain of events where each event pair is one where the execution of p influences the execution of q. p may be upstream, downstream, part of, or a container of q. causal relation between processes depends on causal relation between entities causally influenced by interaction relation helper property molecular interaction relation helper property The entity or characteristic A is causally upstream of the entity or characteristic B, A having an effect on B. An entity corresponds to any biological type of entity as long as a mass is measurable. A characteristic corresponds to a particular specificity of an entity (e.g., phenotype, shape, size). causally influences p directly regulates q iff p is immediately causally upstream of q and p regulates q. directly regulates s 'has part structure that is capable of' p if and only if there exists some part x such that s 'has part' x and x 'capable of' p has part structure that is capable of A relationship that holds between a material entity and a process in which causality is involved, with either the material entity or some part of the material entity exerting some influence over the process, or the process influencing some aspect of the material entity. causal relation between material entity and a process Holds between c and p if and only if c is capable of some activity a, and a regulates p. capable of regulating Holds between c and p if and only if c is capable of some activity a, and a negatively regulates p. capable of negatively regulating Holds between c and p if and only if c is capable of some activity a, and a positively regulates p. capable of positively regulating Inverse of 'causal agent in process' process has causal agent p directly positively regulates q iff p is immediately causally upstream of q, and p positively regulates q. directly positively regulates p directly negatively regulates q iff p is immediately causally upstream of q, and p negatively regulates q. directly negatively regulates Holds between an entity and an process P where the entity enables some larger compound process, and that larger process has-part P. enables subfunction acts upstream of or within, positive effect acts upstream of or within, negative effect c 'acts upstream of, positive effect' p if c is enables f, and f is causally upstream of p, and the direction of f is positive acts upstream of, positive effect c 'acts upstream of, negative effect' p if c is enables f, and f is causally upstream of p, and the direction of f is negative acts upstream of, negative effect causally upstream of or within, negative effect causally upstream of or within, positive effect The entity A has an activity that regulates an activity of the entity B. For example, A and B are gene products where the catalytic activity of A regulates the kinase activity of B. regulates activity of p is indirectly causally upstream of q iff p is causally upstream of q and there exists some process r such that p is causally upstream of r and r is causally upstream of q. indirectly causally upstream of p indirectly regulates q iff p is indirectly causally upstream of q and p regulates q. indirectly regulates X device utilizes material Y means X and Y are material entities, and X is capable of some process P that has input Y. utilizes device utilizes material A relationship that holds between a process and a characteristic in which process (P) regulates characteristic (C) iff: P results in the existence of C OR affects the intensity or magnitude of C. regulates characteristic A relationship that holds between a process and a characteristic in which process (P) positively regulates characteristic (C) iff: P results in an increase in the intensity or magnitude of C. positively regulates characteristic A relationship that holds between a process and a characteristic in which process (P) negatively regulates characteristic (C) iff: P results in a decrease in the intensity or magnitude of C. negatively regulates characteristic An entity that exists in full at any time in which it exists at all, persists through time while maintaining its identity and has no temporal parts. continuant An entity that has temporal parts and that happens, unfolds or develops through time. occurrent b is an independent continuant = Def. b is a continuant which is such that there is no c and no t such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [017-002]) independent continuant spatial region p is a process = Def. p is an occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [083-003]) process disposition A specifically dependent continuant that inheres in continuant entities and are not exhibited in full at every time in which it inheres in an entity or group of entities. The exhibition or actualization of a realizable entity is a particular manifestation, functioning or process that occurs under certain circumstances. realizable realizable entity quality b is a specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant & there is some independent continuant c which is not a spatial region and which is such that b s-depends_on c at every time t during the course of b’s existence. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [050-003]) characteristic specifically dependent continuant A realizable entity the manifestation of which brings about some result or end that is not essential to a continuant in virtue of the kind of thing that it is but that can be served or participated in by that kind of continuant in some kinds of natural, social or institutional contexts. role function An independent continuant that is spatially extended whose identity is independent of that of other entities and can be maintained through time. material entity immaterial entity A molecular process that can be carried out by the action of a single macromolecular machine, usually via direct physical interactions with other molecular entities. Function in this sense denotes an action, or activity, that a gene product (or a complex) performs. molecular function gene product or complex activity molecular_function A molecular process that can be carried out by the action of a single macromolecular machine, usually via direct physical interactions with other molecular entities. Function in this sense denotes an action, or activity, that a gene product (or a complex) performs. GOC:pdt A biological process is the execution of a genetically-encoded biological module or program. It consists of all the steps required to achieve the specific biological objective of the module. A biological process is accomplished by a particular set of molecular functions carried out by specific gene products (or macromolecular complexes), often in a highly regulated manner and in a particular temporal sequence. A process that emerges from two or more causally-connected macromolecular activities and has evolved to achieve a biological objective. biological process physiological process single organism process single-organism process biological process biological_process A biological process is the execution of a genetically-encoded biological module or program. It consists of all the steps required to achieve the specific biological objective of the module. A biological process is accomplished by a particular set of molecular functions carried out by specific gene products (or macromolecular complexes), often in a highly regulated manner and in a particular temporal sequence. GOC:pdt true Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule. phosphokinase activity kinase activity Catalysis of the transfer of a phosphate group, usually from ATP, to a substrate molecule. ISBN:0198506732 The curation status of the term. The allowed values come from an enumerated list of predefined terms. See the specification of these instances for more detailed definitions of each enumerated value. curation status specification A material entity that is an individual living system, such as animal, plant, bacteria or virus, that is capable of replicating or reproducing, growth and maintenance in the right environment. An organism may be unicellular or made up, like humans, of many billions of cells divided into specialized tissues and organs. organism A dependent entity that inheres in a bearer by virtue of how the bearer is related to other entities quality A dependent entity that inheres in a bearer by virtue of how the bearer is related to other entities PATOC:GVG Biological entity that is either an individual member of a biological species or constitutes the structural organization of an individual member of a biological species. anatomical entity Biological entity that is either an individual member of a biological species or constitutes the structural organization of an individual member of a biological species. FMA:62955 http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9114-8737 example to be eventually removed Class has all its metadata, but is either not guaranteed to be in its final location in the asserted IS_A hierarchy or refers to another class that is not complete. metadata complete Term created to ease viewing/sort terms for development purpose, and will not be included in a release organizational term Class has undergone final review, is ready for use, and will be included in the next release. Any class lacking "ready_for_release" should be considered likely to change place in hierarchy, have its definition refined, or be obsoleted in the next release. Those classes deemed "ready_for_release" will also derived from a chain of ancestor classes that are also "ready_for_release." ready for release Class is being worked on; however, the metadata (including definition) are not complete or sufficiently clear to the branch editors. metadata incomplete Nothing done yet beyond assigning a unique class ID and proposing a preferred term. uncurated All definitions, placement in the asserted IS_A hierarchy and required minimal metadata are complete. The class is awaiting a final review by someone other than the term editor. pending final vetting Terms with this status should eventually replaced with a term from another ontology. to be replaced with external ontology term A term that is metadata complete, has been reviewed, and problems have been identified that require discussion before release. Such a term requires editor note(s) to identify the outstanding issues. requires discussion true MF(X)-directly_regulates->MF(Y)-enabled_by->GP(Z) => MF(Y)-has_input->GP(Y) e.g. if 'protein kinase activity'(X) directly_regulates 'protein binding activity (Y)and this is enabled by GP(Z) then X has_input Z infer input from direct reg GP(X)-enables->MF(Y)-has_part->MF(Z) => GP(X) enables MF(Z), e.g. if GP X enables ATPase coupled transporter activity' and 'ATPase coupled transporter activity' has_part 'ATPase activity' then GP(X) enables 'ATPase activity' enabling an MF enables its parts true GP(X)-enables->MF(Y)-part_of->BP(Z) => GP(X) involved_in BP(Z) e.g. if X enables 'protein kinase activity' and Y 'part of' 'signal tranduction' then X involved in 'signal transduction' involved in BP If a molecular function (X) has a regulatory subfunction, then any gene product which is an input to that subfunction has an activity that directly_regulates X. Note: this is intended for cases where the regaultory subfunction is protein binding, so it could be tightened with an additional clause to specify this. inferring direct reg edge from input to regulatory subfunction inferring direct neg reg edge from input to regulatory subfunction inferring direct positive reg edge from input to regulatory subfunction effector input is compound function input Input of effector is input of its parent MF if effector directly regulates X, its parent MF directly regulates X if effector directly positively regulates X, its parent MF directly positively regulates X if effector directly negatively regulates X, its parent MF directly negatively regulates X 'causally downstream of' and 'overlaps' should be disjoint properties (a SWRL rule is required because these are non-simple properties). 'causally upstream of' and 'overlaps' should be disjoint properties (a SWRL rule is required because these are non-simple properties).