version 1.4a
CRMgeo 1.4 Encoded in OWL, modified GG, adding OWL-constructs. 2020-02-28
The class SpatialObject, superclass of everything feature or
geometry that can have a spatial representation.
Feature is defined as superclass of everything feature.
Further OGC/ ISO 19100 definitions:
"A feature is an abstraction of a real world phenomenon" [ISO 19101];
A feature is a geographic feature if it is associated with a
location relative to the Earth. Vector data consists of
geometric and topological primitives used, separately or in
combination, to construct objects that express the spatial
characteristics of geographic features.
Attributes of (either contained in or associated to) a feature
describe measurable or describable properties about this
entity. Unlike a data structure description, feature instances
derive their semantics and valid use or analysis from the
corresponding real world entities’ meaning. Documenting feature
instances, types, semantics and their properties is often
detailed in an information model. An information model details
how to take real world ideas or objects and make them useful to
a computer system. In the geospatial world the focus is on
depicting things in the real world as points, lines, or polygons
(the geometry ”primitives” we use to assemble location data
about those real world objects) and their attributes
(information about those objects). When linked together, a pair
(geometry and attributes) representing one or more real world
objects, is called a feature.
There are three popular approaches for the modeling of
geospatial features.
The first models the spatial extent of a feature with point,
lines, polygons, and other geometric primitives that come from a
list of well-known types. Features modeled in this fashion are
called “Features with Geometry.”
The class Geometry, superclass of everything geometry.
Further OGC/ ISO 19100 definitions:
The Geometry class is based on the specifications in ISO 19107
(ISO 2003) and in particular of the GM_Object. GM_Object is the
root class of the geometric object taxonomy and supports
interfaces common to all geographically referenced geometric
objects. GM_Object instances are sets of direct positions in a
particular coordinate reference system. A GM_Object can be
regarded as an infinite set of points that satisfies the set
operation interfaces for a set of direct positions,
TransfiniteSet (DirectPosition). Since an infinite collection
class cannot be implemented directly, a Boolean test for
inclusion shall be provided by the GM_Object interface. This
International Standard concentrates on vector geometry classes,
but future work may use GM_Object as a root class without
modification (ISO 2003).
Scope note: This class comprises the 4 dimensional point sets
(volumes) (S) which material phenomena (I) occupy in Space-Time
(S). An instance of S1 Space Time Volume represents the true (I)
extent of an instance of E4 Period in spacetime or the true (I)
extent of the trajectory of an instance of E18 Physical Thing during
the course of its existence, from production to destruction. A
fuzziness of the extent lies in the very nature of the phenomenon,
and not in the shortcomings of observation (U). The degree of
fuzziness with respect to the scale of the phenomenon may vary
widely, but the extent is never exact in a mathematical
sense. According to modern physics, points in space-time are
absolute with respect to the physical phenomena happening at them,
regardless the so-called Galilean relativity of spatial or temporal
reference systems in terms of which an observer may describe
them. Following the theory, points relative to different spatial or
temporal reference systems can be related if common points of
phenomena in space-time are known in different systems. Instances of
S1 Space-Time Volume are sets of such absolute space-time points of
phenomena (I).The (Einstein) relativity of spatial and temporal
distances is of no concern for the scales of things in the
cultural-historical discourse, but does not alter the above
principles.[ØE8] The temporal projection of an instance of SP1
Space-Time Volume defines an E52 Time-Span while its spatial
projection defines an SP2 Phenomenal Place[ØE9]. The true location
of an instance of E18 Physical Thing during some time-span can be
regarded as the spatial projection of the restriction of its
trajectory to the respective time-span.
Examples:
* The Space Time Volume of the Event of Ceasars murdering
* The Space Time Volume where and when the carbon 14 dating of the
"Schoeninger Speer II" in 1996 took place
* The spatio-temporal trajectory of the H.M.S. Victory from its
building to its actual location
* The Space Time Volume of the temple in Abu Simbel before its removal
Scope note: This class comprises instances of E53 Place (S) whose
extent (U) and position is defined by the spatial projection of the
spatiotemporal extent of a real world phenomenon that can be
observed or measured. The spatial projection depends on the instance
of S3 Reference Space onto which the extent of the phenomenon is
projected. In general, there are no limitations to the number of
Reference Spaces one could regard, but only few choices are relevant
for the cultural-historical discourse. Typical for the
archaeological discourse is to choose a reference space with respect
to which the remains of some events would stay at the same place,
for instance, relative to the bedrock of a continental plate. On the
other side, for the citizenship of babies born in aeroplanes, the
space in which the boundaries of the overflown state are defined may
be relevant (I). Instances of SP2 Phenomenal Place exist as long as
the respective reference space is defined. Note that we can talk in
particular about what was at a place in a country before a city was
built there, i.e., before the time the event occurred by which the
place is defined, but we cannot talk about the place of earth before
it came into existence due to lack of a reasonable reference space
(E).
Examples:
* The place where the murder of Ceasar happened
* Place on H.M.S. Victory at which Nelson died
* The Place of the Varus Battle
* The volume in space of my vine glass
* The place the H.M.S Victory occupied over the seafloor when Nelson died
* The space enclosed by this room
* The space in borehole Nr. 405
Scope note: This class comprises the (typically Euclidian)
Space (S) that is at rest (I) in relation to an instance of E18
Physical Thing and extends (U) infinitely beyond it. It is the space
in which we typically expect things to stay in place if no
particular natural or human distortion processes occur. This
definition requires that at least essential parts of the respective
physical thing have a stability of form. The degree of this
stability (e.g., elastic deformation of a ship on sea, landslides,
geological deformations) limits the precision to which an instance
of SP3 Reference Space is defined. It is possible to construct types
of (non Euclidian) reference spaces which adapt to elastic
deformations or have other geometric and dynamic properties to adapt
to changes of form of the reference object, but they are of rare
utility in the cultural-historical discourse. [ØE11]
An instance of SP3 Reference Space begins to exist with the largest
thing that is at rest in it and ceases to exist with its E6
Destruction[ØE12]. If other things are at rest in the same space and
their time-span of existence falls within the one of the reference
object, they share the same reference space (I). It has therefore
the same temporal extent (time-span of existence) as the whole of
the E18 Physical Things it is at rest with (E).
Examples:
* The Space inside and around H.M.S. Victory while it is moving
through the Atlantic Ocean
* The Space inside and around the Eurasian Continental Plate
* The Space inside and around the Earth
* The Space inside and around the Solar system
Scope note: This class compromises systems that are used
to describe locations in a SP3 Reference Space (S). An instance of
SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference System is composed of two parts:
The first is a Coordinate System which is a set of coordinate axes
with specified units of measurement and axis directions. The second
part is a set of reference features at rest in the Reference Space
it describes in the real world that relate the Coordinate System to
real world locations (U) and fix it with respect to the reference
object of its Reference Space .
In surveying and geodesy, instance of SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference
System are called a datum. In the case of spatial coordinate
reference systems for the earth the datum consists of the reference
points and an ellipsoid that approximates the shape of the
earth. National systems often use ellipsoids that approximate their
territory best and shift them in an appropriate position relative to
the earth while WGS84 is an ellipsoid for the whole earth and used
in GPS receivers. In engineering a datum is a reference feature of
an object used to create a reference system for measurement.The set
of reference features in the real world are subset of E26 Physical
Feature that are within the described reference space at rest and
pertain to the E18 Physical Thing the reference space is at rest
with.
SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference Systems have a validity for a certain
spatial extent of the SP3 Reference Space and in addition a temporal
validity. The combination of coordinate reference system and datum
provides a unique identity (I). SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference
Systems may be defined for the earth, moving objects like planes or
ships, linear features like boreholes or local systems. If there is
a standardised identifier system available, such as EPSG codes, it
should be used.
Examples:
* Longitude-Latitude(ellipsoidal Coordinate System) in WGS84 (Datum)
* EPSG 3241
* the coordinate system to describe locations on H.M.S. Victory taking
the deck foundation of the middle mast as origin, the mast as z
axis, the line at right angle to the bow line as x axis and a right
angle to both as y axis.
* The printed lines of the millimeter paper on which an archaeological
feature is drawn
Scope note: This class comprises definitions of places by
quantitative expressions. An instance of SP5 Geometric Place
Expression can be seen as a prescription of how to find the location
meant by this expression in the real world (S), which is based on
measuring where the quantities referred to in the expression lead
to, beginning from the reference points of the respective reference
system.
A form of expression may be geometries or map elements defined in a
SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference System that unambiguously identify
locations in a SP3 Reference Space. Other forms may refer to areas
confined by imaginary lines connecting Phenomenal Places such as
trees, islands, cities, mountain tops.
The identity of a SP5 Place Expression is based on its script or
symbolic form (I). Several SP5 Place Expressions can denote the same
SP6 Declarative Place.
Instances of SP5 Geometric Place Expressions that exist in one SP4
Spatial Coordinate Reference System can be transformed to geometries
in other SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference System if there is a known
and valid transformation. The product of the transformation in
general defines a new instance of SP6 Declarative Place, albeit
close to the source of the transformation. This can be due to
distortions resulting from the transformation and the limited
precision by which the relative position of the reference points
differing between the respective reference systems are
determined.
Examples:
* Coordinate Information in GML like <gml:Point gml:id="p21"
srsName="http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326">
<gml:coordinates>45.67, 88.56</gml:coordinates>
</gml:Point>
* a polygon defining the extent of France
Scope note:
This class comprises instances of E53 Place (S) whose extent (U) and
position is defined by a SP5 Geometric Place Expression (S). There
is one implicit or explicit SP3 Reference Space in which the SP5
Place Expression describes the intended place. Even though SP5
Geometric Place Expressions have an unlimited precision, measurement
devices and the precision of the position of reference features
relating the SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference System to a SP3
Reference Space impose limitations to the determination of an SP6
Declarative Place in the real world (U).
Several SP5 Geometric Place Expressions may denote the same SP6
Declarative Place if their precision falls within the same range
(I).
Instances of SP6 Declarative Places may be used to approximate
instances of E53 Places or parts of them. They may as well be used
to define the location and spatial extent of property rights or
national borders.
Examples:
* the place defined by <gml:Point gml:id="p21"
srsName="http://www.opengis.net/def/crs/EPSG/0/4326">
<gml:coordinates>45.67, 88.56</gml:coordinates>
</gml:Point>
* the place defined by a line approximating the Danube river
* The place of the Orinoco river defined in the map of Diego Ribeiro in 1529
* the place defined through a polygon that represents the boundaries
of the UK in the year 2003
Scope note: This class comprises instances of SP8
Spacetime Volumes (S) whose temporal and spatial extent (U) and
position is defined by a SP12 Spacetime Volume Expression. There is
one implicit or explicit SP3 Reference Space in which the SP12
Spacetime Volume Expression describes the intended Spacetime
Volume. As we restrict the model to Galilean physics and explicitly
exclude systems with velocities close to the speed of light we do
not model a “Reference Time” as it would be necessary for
relativistic physics. This implies that there is only one Reference
Time.
Even though SP12 Spacetime Volume Expressions have an unlimited
precision, measurement devices and the precision of the position of
reference features relating the SP4 Spatial Coordinate Reference
System to a SP3 Reference Space impose limitations to the
determination of the spatial part of a SP7 Declarative Spacetime
Volume in the real world (U).
The same limitation to precision is true for the temporal part of a
SP7 Declarative Spacetime Volume due to precision of time
measurement devices and of the determination of the reference event
of a SP11 Temporal Reference System.
Several SP12 Spacetime Volume Expressions may denote the same
SP7 Declarative Spacetime Volume if their precision falls within the
same range (I).
Instances of SP7 Declarative Spacetime Volumes may be used to
approximate instances of SP8 Spacetime Volumes or parts of
them. They may as well be used to define the spatial and temporal
extent of property rights or national borders.
Examples:
* the spacetime volume defined by a polygon approximating the
Danube river flood in Austria between 6th and 9th of August 2002
* the spacetime volume of the Orinoco river in 1529 defined in
the map of Diego Ribeiro in 1529
* the spacetime volume representing the boundaries of the UK
from 1900-1950
Scope note: This class comprises instances of SP9 Time
Intervals that represent the Time Span defined by a SP 14 Time
Expression. Thus they derive their identity through an expression
defining an extent in time. Even though SP10 Declarative Time Spans
have an unlimited precision, measurement devices and the possible
precision within the SP11 Temporal Reference System impose
limitations to the determination of a SP10 Declarative Time
Span. The accuracy of a SP10 Declarative Time Spans depends upon the
documentation and measurement method.
SP10 Declarative Time Spans may be used to approximate actual
(phenomenal) Time-Spans of temporal entities.
Examples:
* Extent in time defined by the expression “1961”
* Extent in time defined by the expression “From 12-17-1993 to 12-8-1996”
* Extent in time defined by the expression “14h30 – 16h22 4th July 1945”
Scope note: This class compromises systems(S) that are
used to describe positions and extents in a Reference Time. If
relativistic effects are negligible in the wider spacetime area of
interest and the speeds of associated things, then there is only one
unique global reference time. The typical way to measure time is to
count the cycles of a periodic process for which we have a
hypothesis of constant frequency, such as oscillations of a crystal,
molecular arrangement, rotation of earth around itself or around the
sun. The origin for a Temporal Reference System is fixed on a
reference event. As long as the number of cycles passed from that
reference event until now are known, the temporal reference system
exists (E) and expressions in this Reference System can be
interpreted with respect to the Reference Time.
A temporal reference system represents time as a continuous linear
interpolation over the infinit series of cycles extended from the
reference event to he past and the future, regardless of the
temporal position of the mathematical point zero of an instance of
E61 Time Primitive, such for instance the gregorian calender begins
with the event an arbitrary positiong the point zero as beeing the
date of the „Birth of Christ“. The actual date of birth of christ is
regarded to be unknown and therefor is not the reference event.
The identity of a Temporal Reference System is defined through the
type of periodic process it is based on, the reference event and
through the distance of the reference event to the position of the
mathematical point zero (I).
A value in the Reference Time is a temporal position measured relative
to a temporal reference system. ISO 8601 specifies the use of the
Gregorian Calendar and 24 hour local or Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) for information interchange.
In ISO 19108 three common types of temporal reference systems are
explicitly stated: calendars (used with clocks for greater
resolution), temporal coordinate systems, and ordinal temporal
reference systems.
Calendars and clocks are both based on interval scales. A calendar is
a discrete temporal reference system that provides a basis for
defining temporal position to a resolution of one day. A clock
provides a basis for defining temporal position within a day. A
clock must be used with a calendar in order to provide a complete
description of a temporal position within a specific day. Every
calendar provides a set of rules for composing a calendar date from
a set of elements such as year, month, and day. In every calendar,
years are numbered relative to the date of a reference event that
defines a calendar era [ISO 19108].
Specifying temporal position in terms of calendar date and time of day
complicates the computation of distances between points and the
functional description of temporal operations. A temporal coordinate
system may be used to support applications of this kind. [ISO
19108].
Ordinal temporal reference systems as specified in ISO 19108 are no
instances of SP11 Temporal Reference Systems as they do not define
cycles of a periodic process but define a system of time intervals
based on reverence periods related to certain natural or cultural
phenomena.
Examples:
* Gregorian Calendar
* Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
* Julian date
* Greenwich time
* ISO 8601
Scope Note:
This class comprises instances of E59 Primitive Value for spacetime
volumes that should be implemented with appropriate validation,
precision, interval logic and reference systems to express date
ranges and geometries relevant to cultural documentation. A
Spacetime Volume Expression may consist of one expression including
temporal and spatial information like in GML or a different form of
expressing spacetime in an integrated way like a formula containing
all 4 dimensions.
A Spacetime Volume Expression defines a SP7 Declarative Spacetime
Volume, which means that the identity of the Spacetime Volume is
derived from its geometric and temporal definition. This declarative
Spacetime Volume allows for the application of all Spacetime Volume
properties to relate phenomenal Spacetime Volumes of Periods and
Physical Things to propositions about their spatial and temporal
extents.
Examples:
* Spatial and temporal information in KML for the maximum extent
of the Byzantine Empire
* a spacetime volume expressed in Geography Markup Language
(GML) defining the spatial extent of France from 1792-1816 giving
one spatial extent for each year
Scope note: This class comprises instances of SP9 Time
Intervalls whose extent (U) and position is defined by the temporal
projection of the spatiotemporal extent that can be observed or
measured. Thus they derive their identity through the extent in time
of a real world phenomenon (I).
Examples:
* Duration of the phenomenal temporal extent of the Trafalgar battle
* The real duration of the Ming Dynasty
* The real extent of the lifetime of Ceasar starting with his
birth and ending with his death
Scope note: This class comprises definitions of temporal
extents by quantitative expressions(S). An instance of SP14 Time
Expression defines a declarative temporal interval using a temporal
reference system. The identity of a SP14 Time Expression is based on
its script or symbolic form (I). Several SP14 Time Expressions can
denote the same SP10 Declarative Time Interval.
Instances of SP14 Time Expression that exist in one SP11 Temporal
Reference System can be transformed to time expressions in other
SP11 Temporal Reference Systems if there is a known and valid
transformation.
Examples:
* Temporal information in GML
<gml:validTime><gml:TimeInstant>
<gml:timePosition>2005-11-28T13:00:00Z</gml:timePosition>
</gml:TimeInstant></gml:validTime>
* 1961
* From 12-17-1993 to 12-8-1996
* 14h30 – 16h22 4th July 1945
* 9.30 am 1.1.1999 to 2.00 pm 1.1.1999
Scope note: This class comprises ....(to be elaborated further)
Equivalent to: http://www.opengis.net/ont/geosparql#Geometry (geosparql)
Scope note:
Scope note:
Scope note: This property associates an instance of E4
Period with the 4 dimensional point sets (volumes) in spacetime that
it occupied. This instance of SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume
includes the trajectories of the participating physical things
during their participation in the instance of E4 Period, the open
spaces via which they have interacted and the spaces by which they
had the potential to interact during that period or event in the way
defined by the type of the respective period or event, such as the
air in a meeting room transferring the voices. It also comprises the
areas controlled by some military power. Therefore instances of E4
Period have fuzzy boundaries in spacetime.
Scope note: This property describes the 4 dimensional point sets
(volumes) in spacetime that the trajectory of an instance of E18
Physical Thing occupies in spacetime in the course of its
existence. We include in the occupied space the space filled by the
matter of the physical thing and all inner spaces not accessible in
regular function.
Scope note: This property describes the temporal
projection of an instance of a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume. The
property P4 has time-span is a shortcut of the more fully developed
path from E4 Period through Q1 occupied, SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime
Volume Q3 has temporal projection to E52 Time Span.
Scope note: This property describes the spatial projection
of an instance of a SP1 Phenomenal Spacetime Volume on an instance
of SP2 Phenomenal Place. Even though the projection of a spacetime
volume to one instance of SP3 Reference Space is unique, each
reference space gives rise to another projection. The projections
overlap at the time of the spacetime volume, the respective
instances of SP2 Phenomenal Place may later drift apart, or earlier
be yet apart.
The property P7 took place at is a shortcut of the more fully
developed path from E4 Period through Q1 occupied, SP1 Phenomenal
Spacetime Volume Q4 has spatial projection to SP2 Phenomenal
Place.
Scope note: Inverse property of Q4_has_spatial_projection
Scope note: This property associates an instance of E53
Place with the instance of SP3 Reference Space it is defined
in.
Scope note: This property associates an instance of SP3
Reference Space with the instance of E18 Physical Thing that is at
rest in it. For all instances of E18 Physical Thing exist at least
one reference space it is at rest with because of their relative
stability of form. Larger constellations of matter may comprise many
physical features that are at rest with them.
Scope note: This property associates an instance of SP4
Spatial Coordinate Reference System with the instance of SP3
Reference Space for which it can be used to describe
locations.
Scope note: This property defines the physical reference
features that ground a spatial coordinate reference system in the
real world.
In surveying and geodesy this is part of the datum definition and is
often a point identified by a physical feature on earth (sometimes
monuments) where the earth approximation ellipsoid touches the earth
and one axis of the ellipsoid runs through.
Scope note: This property defines the coordinate reference
system in terms of which a geometric place expression is
formulated.
Scope note: This property associates an instance of SP5
Geometric Place Expression with the instance of SP6 Declarative
Place it defines. Syntactic variants or use of different scripts may
result in multiple instances of SP5 Geometric Place Expression
defining exactly the same place. Transformations between different
reference systems in general result in new definitions of places
approximating each other.
Scope note: This property approximates a phenomenal place
which is defined in the same reference space. The property does not
state the quality or accuracy of the approximation, but an overlap
in area is the minimal requirement.
Scope note: This property approximates a SP8 Spacetime
Volume. The property does not state the quality or accuracy of the
approximation, but an overlap of the spacetime volume is the minimal
requirement.
Scope note: This property approximates a SP9 Time Intervall. The
property does not state the quality or accuracy of the
approximation, but an overlap in time is the minimal requirement.
Scope note: This property associates an instance of SP14
Time Expression with the instance of SP10 Declarative Time Span it
defines. Syntactic variants or use of different scripts may result
in multiple instances of SP14 Time Expression defining exactly the
same time span. Transformations between different temporal reference
systems in general result in new definitions of time spans
approximating each other.
Scope note: This property defines the temporal reference system in
terms of which an SP14 Time Expression is formulated.
Scope note: This property associates an instance of SP12
Spacetime Volume Expression with the instance of SP7 Declarative
Spacetime Volume it defines. Syntactic variants or use of different
scripts may result in multiple instances of SP12 Spacetime Volume
Expressions defining exactly the same SP7 Declarative Spacetime
Volume. Transformations between different temporal or spatial
reference systems in general result in new definitions of Spacetime
Volumes approximating each other.
Scope note: This property defines the temporal reference
system in terms of which a SP12 Spacetime Volume Expression is
formulated.
Scope note: This property defines the spatial coordinate
reference system in terms of which a SP12 Spacetime Volume
Expression is formulated.