--- marp: true title: 02 April 2021 theme: default paginate: true --- # CS 199 EMP ### Hosted by Jackie Chan and Akhila Ashokan **Topics:** Linked Lists --- # Resources Removed the poor learning objectives. Write code on the homepage or any playground on the site! https://cs125.cs.illinois.edu/ Slides are on the course site! https://cs199emp.netlify.app/ --- # Let's Talk About ArrayLists Before *How do they look under the hood?* Let's remember the operations we should expect from a List. Then we'll look at how ArrayList implements those. For a list, we should expect these operations on ordered elements: - **Add:** Add an element to the list, say at the beginning. - **Remove:** Remove an element at a particular index. - **Get:** Get a particular element from the list. Let's focus on these. How are they implemented? How fast? After that, we'll look into Linked Lists. --- # Adding to an ArrayList. Consider this ArrayList. --- ![bg 90%](../../pics/arraylist.svg) --- # Now let's add something to it. --- ![bg 80%](../../pics/arraylist_add.svg) --- # That was very annoying. *Because the array was at a fixed size*, and it couldn't fit another element, we needed to nudge everything down to add an element to the beginning. That operation is $O(n)$ because it needed to initialize a new array $O(1)$, then add $n$ elements down one index $O(n)$, and finally add the new element $O(1)$. We'll later see that this is *drastically faster* for linked lists. Removing an element at a particular index is also equally painful. --- # Let's take a look at the get operation for ArrayList. Consider the same initial ArrayList previously. --- ![bg 80%](../../pics/arraylist_get.svg) --- # That was less painful. Getting an object is fast in an ArrayList because you can just access the specific element based on the index, $O(1)$. We'll later lose that luxury in LinkedList. --- # Questions? Any questions about ArrayList? Lots to visualize, hopefully those diagrams were helpful. *Let's now move onto those operations with a linked list instead.* --- # Adding to a LinkedList. Consider this LinkedList. --- ![bg 80%](../../pics/linked_list.svg) --- # LinkedList is a chain of Item objects in this case. Each Item object has two values, a reference to a Person and a reference to the next Item. java class Item { Person value; Item next; }  We only know it's the end of the list when the next value is null. Now, let's actually add a person to LinkedList to the start. --- ![bg 70%](../../pics/linked_list_add.svg) --- # BANG! That was fast. This is a constant time operation. We know this because adding an Person to the list is a fixed number of steps no matter the size of the LinkedList. Remember, from ArrayList, it was linear time $O(n)$. Nice! *Now, what about retrieving an element.* --- ![bg 80%](../../pics/linked_list_get.svg) --- # Compared to ArrayList, that was painful. In ArrayList, getting an object at a particular index was constant time $O(1)$. Here, worse-case scenario the element you're looking for is at the end, thus the runtime is linear $O(n)$. Remember, this is called *walking through the list*. --- # Pause for a moment. I spoke for awhile. ArrayList and LinkedList are *two different implementations* of lists. They have their tradeoffs. Any questions here before we practice? --- # Linked List Practice (15 minutes) *Printing a LinkedList.* I'll give you code for a LinkedList, can you override the toString() method? Convert the LinkedList to a String in an elegant way. --- # Printing LinkedList Starter Code java public class LinkedList { private Item start; class Item { public String name; public Item next; Item(String setName, Item setNext) { this.name = setName; this.next = setNext; } } public void add(String s) { Item addition = new Item(s, this.start); this.start = addition; } } LinkedList ls = new LinkedList(); ls.add("First"); ls.add("Second"); ls.add("Third"); System.out.println(ls); // This should work. // Would be nice to have: Third -> Second -> First -> null  --- # LinkedList Replace (10 minutes) Let's try lambda expressions and pass in a filter method that replaces a name with [replaced] if flagged by the expression. For example, (i) -> !i.name.equals("Jackie"); should replace all "Jackie" strings in the LinkedList with [deleted]. --- # Replace LinkedList Starter Code Add this functional interface. java interface Replace { boolean replace(String i); }  And this function within LinkedList. java public void replace(Replace r) { // Your code here. }  This should work by the end. java ls.replace((s) -> s.equals("First")); System.out.println(ls);  --- # Personal Wisdom Using a while loop will be helpful (at least for now, stay tuned) to *walk through* a LinkedList. java while (i != null) { // Some code. // Move on. i = i.next; }  If you don't do this right, then it'll loop forever. Make sure you get this right. *Note: You want a while loop because you don't know the size of the LinkedList, only where it starts.* Also, draw it. It's *difficult* to imagine all these moving parts in your head. --- # LinkedList Add to End (10 minutes) Add this function into LinkedList that adds a String to the end. java public void addToEnd(String s) { // Your code here. }  Remember that you have the print function to test. --- # Improve Add to End (5 minutes) Add a variable called Item last; that denotes the last elememt in the LinkedList. Add this snippet to the immediately after additional declaration in the add(String s) function. java if (this.start == null) { this.end = addition; }  Rewrite the addToEnd(String s) function now that you have the last variable. --- # Holy cow that was a lot about LinkedList Congrats! You're now full-blown experts! Only $\infty$ more data structures to go, kidding (late April Fools')! The moral of the story, data structures are cool. There are a lot of them. They're used for different purposes. Knowing them will allow you to not reinvent the wheel each time and write efficient code. Upcoming, Jackie and Akhila's favorite data structure, maps! --- # Solution Section --- # Print LinkedList Solution java @Override public String toString() { Item i = this.start; String output = ""; while (i != null) { output += i.name + " -> "; i = i.next; } return output + "null"; }  --- # Replace LinkedList Solution java public void replace(Replace r) { Item i = this.start; while (i != null) { if (r.replace(i.name)) { i.name = "[replaced]"; } i = i.next; } }  --- # LinkedList Add to End Solution java public void addToEnd(String s) { Item i = this.start; // Walk to the end. while (i.next != null) { i = i.next; } i.next = new Item(s, null); }  --- # LinkedList Add to End Faster Solution java public void addToEnd(String s) { this.last.next = new Item(s, null); this.last = last.next; }