A social entity pertains to the interaction among individuals and groups. social entity A social structure is a social entity which consists of relationships between two or more entities. social structure An organization is a collective with a complex articulation of tasks, roles and responsibilities. organization A geographic position is the coordinate of an entity against some geographic coordinate system. geographic position information content entity is an object that requires some background knowledge or procedure to correctly interpret. core ice+ information content entity A start date is a time instant pertaining to the date of the beginning of a process. start date An end date is a time instant pertaining to date of the end of a process. end date physical dimensional quantity A spatial quantity is a quantity obtained from measuring the spatial extent of an entity spatial quantity A quantity that extends in single dimension. 1D extent quantity depth is the dimensional extent into a plane of a 3D projection of the object. depth height is the one dimensional extent along the vertical projection of a 3D object from a base plane of reference. height length is the longer dimensional extent along a 2D projection of the object. length width is the shorter dimensional extent perpendicular to a 2D projection of the object. width thickness is the shortest dimensional extent of a 3D projection of an object. thickness A quantity that extends in two dimensions. 2D extent quantity area is a quantity that pertains to the extent of a two-dimensional surface or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane. area A perimeter is a length of the outline that surrounds a two-dimensional shape. length of perimeter circumference is the length of the outline of a circle or ellipse. it is defined as c = 2*pi*r, where r is the radius. circumference A quantity that extends in three dimensions. 3D extent quantity volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by some closed boundary. volume A quantity is an informational entity that gives the magnitude of a property. quantity A measurement of a spatial location relative to a frame of reference or other objects. position orientation is an angle between the bearer and an axis, or the angle between the bearer and another object. orientation A namespace is an informational entity that defines a logical container for a set of symbols or identifiers. namespace A data item consists of information that has been collected/generated towards some purpose. data item A measurement value is a quantitative description that reflects the magnitude of some attribute. measurement value A coordinate is a measurement of position in n-dimensional space. coordinate A Cartesian coordinate is the signed distance of a point to some referent line. cartesian coordinate A polar coordinate is a position characterized by a distance from a fixed point and an angle from a fixed direction. polar coordinate A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention and/or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same physical quantity. unit of measurement A mathematical entity is an information content entity that are components of a mathematical system or can be defined in mathematical terms. math+ mathematical entity A plan is a set of intended actions, through which one expects to achieve a goal. plan A generic name is the preferred name provided by manufacturer. generic name A language entity implements some language specification for the visual interpretation and is part of some document. nlp+ language entity A visual language entity is a language entity that is manifested within the spectrum of light and can be pereceived and processed by a visual system. visual language entity diagram A figure is a graphical entity which consists of a visual (n-dimentional) arrangement of information entities. figure depiction An image is an affine projection of a visual entity to a two dimensional surface. image photo A photograph is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface. photograph chart A statistical graph is a figure that displays the relationship among numeric data and/or mathematical functions. statistical graph A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information. question A publication is a document that has been made available by a publisher. publication A record is a document containing a collection of statements about some entity. record data set A dataset is a data item that is a collection of data items. http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Dataset dataset A specification is a description of the essential technical attributes/requirements for an object or procedure, and may be used to determine that the object / procedure meets its requirements/attributes. specification effective specification An action specification is a specification composed of a sequence of instructions to achieve some objective. action specification An algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. algorithm A software entity is a computational entity that can be interpreted by or directly executed by a processing unit. software entity A software method (also called subroutine, subprogram, procedure, method, function, or routine) is software designed to execute a specific task. software method A software module is software composed of a collection of software methods. software module A software library is software composed of a collection of software modules and/or software methods in a form that can be statically or dynamically linked to some software application. software library A software application is software that can be directly executed by some processing unit. software application A software interpreter is a software application that executes some specified input software. software interpreter A software script is software whose instructions can be executed using a software interpreter. software script Language is a language entity which is the result of encoding and decoding information through systematic creation and usage of systems of symbols, each pairing a specific sign with an intended meaning, established through social conventions language A symbol is a proposition about what an entity represents. symbol A book is a publication composed of a large number of entries. book A chapter is a document section of a book or thesis. chapter A character is a language symbol used to construct words. character A novel is a fictitious prose narrative of book length, typically representing character and action with some degree of realism. novel A paragraph is a self-contained unit of written discourse consisting of one or more sentences. paragraph A document section is a component of a document. document section A sentence is a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that bear minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it. sentence A word is the smallest free form (an item that may be expressed in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content) in a language. word An identifier is a label that specifically refers to (identifies) an entity (instance/type). identifier A name is a label used to identify an entity. name A preferred name is the name that is generally used by some organization. preferred name A common name is a name that is commonly used. common name A brand name is a trademarked and marketed name of a product. brand name A scientific name is a name given through scientific nomenclature. scientific name A magazine is a periodical that typically contains essays, stories, poems, etc., by many writers, and often photographs and drawings, frequently specializing in a particular subject or area, as hobbies, news, or sports. http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Magazine magazine A synonym is a word with the same or very similar meanings. synonym An antonym is a word with opposite or nearly opposite meaning. antonym A hypernym is a term with a broader meaning. hypernym A hyponym is a term with a narrower meaning. hyponym A homonym is a word that sounds the same but has different meaning. homonym A workflow is an algorithm that is is a depiction of a sequence of operations to achieve one or more objectives. workflow An ontology document is a document that contains an ontology. ontology document A pattern is a generalized representation of some repeatable concrete or informational item. pattern A sequence motif is a pattern of nucleotides in a DNA sequence or amino acids in a protein. sequence motif A descriptor (index term, subject term, subject heading) is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. descriptor A definition is a description that succintly characterizes an entity. definition A description is language entity in which elements of a language (formal or natural) are used to characterize an entity. description A category is a class of entities having particular shared characteristics. category A class is a collection of sets which can be unambiguously defined by a property that all its members share. class A web service is a software application that can be accessed over a network, such as the Internet, and executed on a remote system hosting the requested services. web service A criterion is a specification to describe properties used for evaluation. criterion An inclusion criterion is a criterion that must be present to satisfy some objective. inclusion criterion An exclusion criterion is a criterion that must be absent to satistify the objective. exclusion criterion A parameter is variable whose value changes the characteristics of a system or a function. parameter A keyword is a descriptor in which the association of the word with the entity facilitates information retrieval. keyword A document is a bounded physical or digital representation of a body of information designed with the capacity (and usually intent) to communicate. document A list is any enumeration of a set of items. list A manuscript is a document prior to publication. manuscript A note is a brief document. note A patent is an information entity granted by a patent issuing authority which confers upon the patenter the sole right to make, use and sell an invention for a set period of time. patent An article is a publication that is stand-alone section of a larger work. article A blog is a publication accessible at some website and is typically about various experiences. blog A book volume is a book that is part of a collection. book volume A conference proceedings is a book composed of papers presented at a conference. conference proceedings A book series is a collection of books that have been sequentially published. book series An edited publication is a publication that has been examined and potentially changed by an editor. edited publication A journal is a a peer-reviewed periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Journal journal A manual is a document that instructs on the usage of a device. manual A periodical is a publication that appears on a regular schedule. http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Periodical periodical A newspaper is a periodical publication containing news regarding current events, informative articles, diverse features, editorials, and advertising. http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Newspaper newspaper A technical report is a publication published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a series. technical report A thesis document is the written research component of a post-secondary institution that contains a statement supported by arguments. thesis document An honor's thesis is a thesis prepared as a requirement for an honor's undergraduate degree. honor's thesis A Master's thesis is a thesis prepared as a requirement for a Master's degree. master's thesis A PhD thesis is a thesis prepared as a requirement for a doctoral degree. phd thesis A booklet is a document that lacks a named publisher or sponsoring institution. booklet A diary is a document which describes day-to-day experiences. diary A bibliographic attribute is an attribute related to publications. document component An address is a position that indicates the physical location of some entity using a social convention. address An affiliation is a social relation which indicates the partnership between two or more entities. affiliation A citation is a textual entity which denotes a source described in the bibliography or reference section of a document. citation A document title is a textual entity that summarizes the topic of the document in one sentence. document title A reference is a textual entity that describes a single source used in the preparation or development of the work. reference A page range denotes the start and end page in some document. page range A page total is a textual entity that is about the number of pages in some informational entity. page total a label is a term that is associated with some entity label A language label is a label that denotes the language of a textual entity. language label A first name is a name that denotes a specific individual between members of a group of individuals, whose members usually share the same surname. first name A last name (surname) is a name added to a given name and is part of a personal name and is often the family name. last name full name A personal name is a name to identify an individual person and usually comprises of a first name and a last name. personal name A legal name is a name given at birth, or which appears on their birth certificate, marriage certificate, or change of name certificate. legal name A title is a textual entity that summarily describes some entity. title A document version is a version of a work in some sequence of derivative works. document version An abstract section is a document section that provides brief summary of a document that explains the main argument(s), topic(s) or findings. abstract section An acknowledgements section is a document section that identifies individuals, groups or organizations for their support in the development of the work. acknowledgements section An author contribution section is a document section that describes the contribution of the authors. author contribution section An author section is a document section that lists the contributing authors. author section A bibliography section is a document section that is composed of a list of references used in the development of the work. bibliography section A copyright section is a document section that contains a notice of copyright. copyright section A correspondence section is a document section that contains the details for contacting the corresponding author. correspondence section The discussion section is a document section containing a summary of the findings, a reflection on the significance of findings, comparison with related work, among others. discussion section An introduction section is a document section that generally provides background, motivation and goals of the work. introduction section The materials and methods section is a document section containing a description of the materials and methods used in the study. materials and methods section The materials section is a document section containing a description of the materials used in the study. materials section The methods section is a document section containing a description of the methods used in the study. methods section The results section is a document section describing the main findings of the study. results section The table of contents is a document section that lists all sections (and optionally subsections) in a sequential order along with their page number. table of contents Implication is a logical operator that holds between a set T of propositions and a proposition B, when every model (or interpretation or valuation) of T is also a model of B. implies (->) A namespace label is a short name for a namespace. namespace label A logical operator is a unary or binary relation to construct logical expressions. logical operator AND is a logical operator that has the value true if both of its operands are true, otherwise a value of false. conjunction (and) A proposition is a sentence expressing something true or false. proposition A dimensionless quantity is a quantity that has no associated unit. dimensionless quantity A dimensional quantity is a quantity that has an associated unit. dimensional quantity An argument is a set of one or more declarative sentences (or propositions) known as the premises along with another declarative sentence (or proposition) known as the conclusion. argument A premise is a proposition of an argument from which the conclusion is drawn. premise A conclusion is a proposition which is reached after considering the evidence, arguments or premises. conclusion A deductive argument is an argument that asserts that the truth of the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises. deductive argument An inductive argument is an argument that asserts that the truth of the conclusion is supported by the premises. inductive argument A sound argument is a valid argument with true premises. sound argument A valid argument is an argument where the truth of the conclusion is a logical consequence of the premises and (consequently) its corresponding conditional is a necessary truth. valid argument An invalid argument is an argument where the truth of the conclusion is false because it is not a logical consequence of the premises. invalid argument A term is a word or phrase used to denote one or more entities. term mass is the quality of the amount of substance. mass OR is a logical operator that results in true whenever one or more of its operands are true. disjunction (or) NOT is a logical operator in that has the value true if its operand is false. negation (not) XOR, also called exclusive disjunction or (symbolized XOR, EOR, EXOR, or âŠ•), is a type of logical disjunction on two operands that results in a value of true if exactly one of the operands has a value of true. exclusive disjunction (xor) A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon. hypothesis An academic organization is a lawfully recognized organization that confers diplomas, degrees and other forms of recognition of academic achievement. academic organization A social relation is a social entity that describes a relationship between two or more individuals or groups. social relation A set is a collection of entities, for which there may be zero members. set A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects and provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education. university A collection of documents is a non-zero set of documents. http://purl.org/ontology/bibo/Collection collection of documents A website is a collection of documents published on the World Wide Web. website film moving pictures A movie is a series of images that are displayed in rapid succession to give the impression of movement. movie An excerpt is a contiguous or discontiguous portion of a document. excerpt A quote is a excerpt that is attributed to a particular source. quote A geographic image is a photograph of some geographical area. geographic image A web page is a document that is published according to World Wide Web standards. web page Email message is a digital document that is composed of a header and a body and is transmitted using the SMTP protocol. email process number is a number associated with a process that denotes its ordinal position in a set of processes. process number A letter is a document that contains a personal communication from one part to another. letter An edition number is count of a literary work edited and published, as by a certain editor or in a certain manner including being printed during some interval of time. edition number volume number is a count of a sequence of periodicals. volume number A functional specification is a specification that describes the characteristics of an object. functional specification A design specification is a specification that provides precise and explicit information about the requirements for a product design. design specification A specification for spatial location is an effective specification towards representation spatial position or spatial data. spatial specification Longitude is a geographic position that refers to the angle east or west of a reference meridian between the two geographical poles to another meridian that passes through an arbitrary point. longitude Latitude is a geographic coordinate which refers to the angle from a point on the Earth's surface to the equatorial plane latitude A coordinate system is a specification for spatial location that uses a set of numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of a point or other geometric element. coordinate system A Cartesian coordinate system specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length. cartesian coordinate system A concept is term that refers to a generalization of a set of attributes or entities. concept A polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a fixed point and an angle from a fixed direction. polar coordinate system A positional description is a description of location using some system or frame of reference. positional identifier A cylindrical coordinate system is a three-dimensional coordinate system that specifies point positions by the distance from a chosen reference axis, the direction from the axis relative to a chosen reference direction, and the distance from a chosen reference plane perpendicular to the axis. cylindrical coordinate system A spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane. spherical coordinate system An OWL ontology is an ontology as specified by the W3C OWL specification. OWL ontology A 3D cartesian coordinate is a coordinate that is composed of an x, y and z coordinate. 3D cartesian coordinate An objective is a proposition that indicates a planned or anticipated outcome. objective A term variant is a term that is a variant of another term. term variant purpose is the reason for which something is done or created or for which something exists. purpose A belief is a proposition that is believed to be true. belief rank 0 tensor A number is a tensor of rank 0. number A variable is a value that may change within the scope of a given problem or set of operations. variable An equation is a mathematical statement that asserts the equality of two expressions. equation time measurement is a measurement value of the duration of some interval of time or a particular instant of time (against some frame of reference). Time intervals are specified as date/datetime ranges. time measurement the duration of my life; the duration of a surgical procedure, the moment of death A file is an information-bearing object that contains a physical embodiment of some information using a particular character encoding. http://www.w3.org/ns/dcat#Distribution file An x cartesian coordinate is the coordinate of an object onto the x-axis of a cartesian coordinate system. x cartesian coordinate An y cartesian coordinate is the coordinate of an object onto the y-axis of a cartesian coordinate system. y cartesian coordinate A z cartesian coordinate is the coordinate of an object onto the z-axis of a cartesian coordinate system. z cartesian coordinate A study group is a group of individuals that are subjects in an observational or intervention study. study group A time internval is a contiguous temporal region having some duration. time interval A time instant is a temporal region which occurs instantaneously, e.g. having no duration. time instant at this moment; the moment at which a finger is detached in an industrial accident; the moment at which a child is born; the moment of death A table is a figure that consists of an ordered arrangement of columns and rows. table scatter chart scatter diagram scatter graph A scatterplot is a statistical graph which uses Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data. The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis. scatterplot A year is a period of time taken by a planet to make one revolution around the sun. year A month is a period of time that divides the year. month A day is a period of 24 hours. day A century is a period of one hundred years. century A millenium is a period of 1000 years millennium An hour is a period of 60 minutes. hour A minute is a period of 60 seconds. minute A second (symbol: s) is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI) and is the second division of the hour by sixty, the first division by 60 being the minute. second A 2D cartesian point is a point whose position is specified along two dimensions using Cartesian coordinates. 2D cartesian point Altitude is a distance above sea level. altitude The center of mass (aka barycenter) is the weighted average location of all the mass in a body or group of bodies. center of mass A 3D cartesian point is a point whose position is specified along three dimensions using Cartesian coordinates. 3D cartesian point A 1D cartesian point is a point whose position is specified along a single dimension using Cartesian coordinates. 1D cartesian point line chart A line graph is a statistical graph in which lines contains the evaluation of functions or individual points connected by line segments. line graph Graph 1 in http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A bar graph is a statistical graph with rectangular bars of lengths proportional to that value that they represent. bar graph Graphs 3,4,5 in http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A horizontal bar graph is a bar graph in which the rectangular bars are horizontally oriented in space. horizontal bar graph Graph 3 in http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A vertical bar graph is a bar graph in which the rectangular bars are vertically oriented in space. vertical bar graph Graph 4,5 in http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A stacked bar graph is a bar graph in which each rectangular bar is partioned by the categorical value of each series of data. stacked bar graph Graphs 6,7 in http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A line-bar graph statistical graph that contains both lines and bars. line-bar graph Graph 8 in http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A figure part is a part of a figure. figure part A plot is a part of a figure that corresponds to the spatial region between the set of axes. plot The square portion of the chart bounded by lines that overlap with the two axes in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm An axis is a line segment that is part of a statistical graph in which the position along the line corresponds to a numeric or categorical value. The value of a plotted geometric objects (e.g. point) can be obtained from the perpendicular projection of the position of the object onto the axis. Axis may also be associated with a textual description of what the values on the axis represents. axis The left vertical and bottom horizontal lines with tickmarks in Graph 1 http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A Cartesian coordinate axis is an axis whose behavior follows that of a Cartesian coordinate system. Cartesian coordinate axis horizontal axis An x-axis is a Cartesian coordinate axis that is aligned with the horizon. In most figures, this axis represents categories, such as months, market segments, or other non-numeric data. x-axis The horizontal axis in http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm vertical axis A y-axis is a Cartesian coordinate axis that is spatially oriented perpendicular to the x-axis. y-axis A z-axis is a Cartesian coordinate axis that is spatially oriented normal to the plane formed by the x- and y-axes. z-axis A category axis is an axis in which the position along the line is partioned into categories. category axis The horizontal axis corresponding to months of the year in graph 4 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A primary category axis is a category axis that either defines the sole value range or holds the larger set of categorical values specified by the secondary category axis. primary category axis The category axis that corresponds to years in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A secondary category axis is a category axis that defines a finer granular part (or subset) of the value range of the primary category axis. secondary category axis The category axis that corresponds to months in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A value axis is an axis in which the position along the line is partioned into numeric values. A value axis holds the properties of having a minimum and a maximum value, and is usually associated with tickmarks that indicate intervals along the axis. value axis The value axis that ranges from 3.0 to 7.4 and corresponds to billions of dollars in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A left value axis is a value axis that is spatially positioned to the left of the plot area. left value axis The value axis that ranges from 3.0 to 7.4 and corresponds to billions of dollars in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A right value axis is a value axis that is spatially positioned to the right of the plot area. right value axis A scaled value axis is a value axis in which the value range was subject to a mathematic transformation. scaled value axis A linear value axis is a value axis that corresponds to a scaling factor of 1 of the value range. linear value axis A logarithmic value axis is a scaled value axis that corresponds to a scaling factor of the logarithm of the value range. logarithmic value axis A data series is a data set composed of related values displayed in a statistical graph. data series Example: The two series that correspond to "Seasonally adjusted" and "Trend" are composed of the seasonally adjusted value of permits in each month and values from a trend derived from some mathematical tranformation across those values, respectively, in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A data point is a point that which corresponds to the projection of the values of measurement data against the axes of a statistical graph. data point A global maximum stationary point is a data point that corresponds to a measurement value is larger than that of all other plotted datapoints. global maximal stationary point A global minimum data point is a data point that corresponds to a measurement value is smaller than that of all other plotted datapoints. global minimal stationary point A legend is a part of a figure that associates textual descriptions with symbols pertaining to plotted entities. legend The colored line segments and the adjacent textual descriptions in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A graph title is a title that describes a graph. graph title Total value of permits increased slightly in December" in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A primary title is a title that should be first used in describing some entity. primary title subtitle, alternative title A secondary title is a title of lesser importance that should be used after the first title in describing some entity. secondary title scientific data is data obtained from some scientific procedure. scientific data A primary graph title is a primary title that describes a statistical graph. primary graph title "Total value of permits increased slightly in December" in Graph 1 of http://tinyurl.com/opwnvm A secondary graph title is a secondary title that describes a statistical graph. secondary graph title A phrase is a group of words functioning as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence. phrase A clause consists of a subject and a predicate. clause A polygon vertex is a terminal point at which two polygon edges meet and are part of a polygon. polygon vertex A polygon edge is a line segment joining two polygon vertices. polygon edge A polyhedral skeleton is a collection of polygon edges. polyhedral skeleton A polygonal face is a polygon bounded by a circuit of polygon edges, and includes the flat (plane) region inside the boundary. polygonal face A polyhedral surface is composed of polygonal faces. polyhedral surface A polygon is a planar entity that is bounded by a closed path or circuit, composed of a finite connected sequence3 of straight line segments. polygon A geometric entity is an information content entity that pertains to the structure and topology of a space. geometry+ geometric entity A point is a geometric entity that is located in a zero-dimensional spatial region and whose position is defined by its coordinates in some coordinate system. point An endpoint is a terminal point that is the last of an ordered pair of points. endpoint A start point is a terminal point which is the first of an ordered pair of points. start point A model is a representation of some thing. model A line is curve that extends in a single dimension (e.g. straight line; exhibits no curvature), and is composed of at least two fully connected points. line A line segment is a line and a part of a curve that is (inclusively) bounded by two terminal points. line segment A tick mark is a line segment that is spatially positioned perpendicular to the axis of a statistical graph and indicates the position of a specific numeric value (which may be indicated by an adjacent value label) on a value axis, or is one of a pair of tick marks that delineates the boundary of a categorical value (which may be indicated by an adjacent category label) on the categorical axis. tick mark A major tick mark is a tick mark that indicates the position of a specific numeric value and is adjacent to its value label on the value axis, or is one of a pair of tick marks that delineates the boundary of a categorical value indicated by an adjacent category label on the categorical axis. major tick mark A minor tick mark is a tick mark that indicates the position of a specific numeric value but has no adjacent value label, or is one of a pair of tick marks that delineates the boundary of a categorical value but has no adjacent category label on the categorical axis. minor tick mark A ray is a line which that is bounded by a startpoint and extends outwards infinitely along one dimension. ray A quadrilateral is a polygon with composed of four points and four line segments, in which each point is fully connected to two other points. quadrilateral A rectangle is a quadrilateral in which one pair of line segments are parallel and the other pair are perpendicular to the first pair. rectangle A bar is a rectangle that is located in the plot of a statistical graph in which its length is proportional to the values that it represents. bar A triangle is a polygon composed of three points and three line segments, in which each point is fully connected to another point along through the line segment. triangle A directed line segment is a line segment that is contained by an ordered pair of endpoints (a start point and an endpoint). directed line segment An arrowed line is a directed line segment in which one or both endpoints is tangentially part of a triangle that bisects the line. arrowed line segment A single arrowed line is directed line in which the endpoint is tangentially part of a triangle that bisects the line. single arrowed line segment A double arrowed line is an arrowed line in which both terminal points are tangentially part of different triangles that bisect the line. double arrowed line segment A horizontal line is a line that is positionally oriented with the horizon. horizontal line A vertical line is a line that is positionally oriented perpendicular to the horizon. vertical line A trend line is a line, line segment or ray that is part of a statistical graph which indicates a statistical or visual direction across categorical or value data. trend line An increasing line is a line segment in which the startpoint and endpoint are ordered along one dimension and the difference of values in a second dimension is positive. increasing line An decreasing line is a line segment in which the startpoint and endpoint are ordered along one dimension and the difference of values in a second dimension is negative. decreasing line An plateau line is a line segment in which the startpoint and endpoint are ordered along one dimension and the difference of values in a second dimension is zero. plateau line A drop line is a statistical graph line that vertically or horizontally connects a data series line with a value axis in a statistical graph. drop line A terminal point is a point that defines the finite extension of a line. terminal point A surface normal is a vector that is perpendicular to a flat surface. surface normal A positionally oriented line is a line that is positioned against some axis of reference. positionally oriented line A statistical graph line is a line used in a statistical graph to communicate some trend or feature of the embedded data. statistical graph line An infinite line is a line that extends outwards in both directions of a single dimensional and is not bounded by terminal points. infinite line A vector line is a line which that is bounded by a startpoint and extends outwards along one dimension. vector line A vertext normal is the normalized average of the surface normals of the faces that contain that vertex. vertex normal polygonal chain, polygonal curve, polygonal path, piecewise linear curve A polyline is a connected sequence of line segments. polyline A collection of points is a geometric entity that contains a non-zero set of geometric points. collection of points A diffusion equation describes density fluctuations in a material undergoing diffusion. diffusion equation A movement equation describes the displacement of an object in space over time. movement equation An ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation in which the unknown function (also known as the dependent variable) is a function of a single independent variable. ordinary differential equation A partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation in which the unknown function is a function of multiple independent variables and the equation involves its partial derivatives. partial differential equation A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and its derivatives of various orders. differential equation An idea is a proposition about some object of conceptual thought. idea structure is the specification that refers to the composition and arrangement of parts of an object. structure A computational entity is an information content entity operated on using some computational system. computational entity A curve is a geometric entity that may be located in n-dimensional spatial region whose extension may be n-dimensional, is composed of at least two fully connected points and does not intersect itself. curve A representation is a entity that in some way represents another entity (or attribute thereof). representation offset A ordinal position is a number that designates the position of an entity from the first entity in an ordered sequence of entities. ordinal position A collection is a set for which there exists at least one member, although any member need not to exist at any point in the collection's existence. collection An empty set is a set for which there are exactly 0 members. empty set A standard is a socially-agreed upon specification. standard A regulatory authority is an organization responsible for exercising regulatory or supervisory capacity in some area of human activity. regulatory authority group A collective is a group of entities that share or are motivated by at least one common issue or interest, or work together on a specific project(s) to achieve a common objective. collective A formal specification is a mathematical description of software or hardware that may be used to develop an implementation. formal specification An RDFS ontology is an ontology that conforms to the syntax and semantics of the Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS). RDFS ontology An OBO ontology is an ontology document as specified by the Open Biological Ontology community. OBO ontology chemical structure is the structure of a chemical entity in terms of its molecular geometry and electronic structure. chemical structure molecular geometry molecular structure is the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. molecular structure A probability measure is quantity of how likely it is that some event will occur. probability measure A process model is a representation of some process. process model An object model is a representation of an object. object model A textual entity is language entity that is manifested as a sequence of one or more distinct characters. textual entity A version label is a label for a particular form or variation of an earlier or original type. version label A software version label is a version label for a piece of software. software version label major.minor[.build[.revision]] A start time is a time instant pertaining to the time at which a process begins. start time An end time is a time instant pertaining to the time at which a process ends. end time A unique identifier is an identifier that uniquely identifies some thing. unique identifier A justification is a proposition that defends, explains or excuses some argument. justification An academic department is a division of a university or school faculty devoted to a particular academic discipline. academic department institute is a society or organization having a object or common factor, and is normally applied to those with a scientific, educational, or social objective. institute A corporation is an organization that is granted a charter recognizing it as a separate legal entity. corporation A specification of an object, manifested by an agent, intended to accomplish goals, in a particular environment, using a set of primitive components, satisfying a set of requirements, subject to constraints. design A chemical identifier is an identifier for a chemical entity chemical identifier A record identifier is an identifier for a database entry. record identifier A physical entity identifier is an identifier for a physical entity. physical entity identifier An informational entity identifier is an identifier for an informational entity. informational entity identifier A molecular identifier is an identifier for a molecular entity. molecular identifier A curve segment is a part of a curve that consists of at least three points. curve segment A stationary point is a point that is part of a curve in which the derivative at that point is zero, and hence its value is at least a local maximum or minimum. stationary point A local maximum stationary point is a point that has a higher value in some axis than adjacent points. local maximum stationary point A local minimum stationary point is a point that has a lower value in some axis than adjacent points. local minimum stationary point A database is a set of tables. database A row represents a single, implicitly structured data item in a table. row A column is a vertical sequence of cells in a cellular automata. column A database table is a set of named columns with zero or more rows composed of cells that contain column values and is part of a database. database table The minimal unit of a cellular automaton that can change state and has an associated behavior. cell (informational) database record A database entry is a single, implicitly structured data item in a table. database entry A database collumn is a column in a database table. database column A unique cell is a cell that contains a unique value in the cellular automaton. unique cell A referenceing cell is a cell of a cellular automata that refers to another cell. referencing cell A referent cell is a cell that is the referent of some function or pointer. referent cell A database key is an informational entity whose value is constructed from one or more database columns. database key A primary database key is a database key that identifies every row of a table. primary database key A foreign database key is a database key that refers to a key in some table. foreign database key p-value A p-value or probability value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true probability value A street name is the token given to identify a particular street. street name A postal code is a geographic coordinate composed of a series of letters and/or digits appended to a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail. postal code An apartment number is the number assigned to identify an apartment in a building of apartments. apartment number The uncertainty value (margin of error) of a measurement is a range of values likely to enclose the true value. uncertainty value A standard deviation (represented by the symbol Ïƒ) is the quantity of variation from the average (mean, or expected value). standard deviation A versioned record is a record for which there exists another variant based that was derived via modification of the facts. versioned record An answer is a reply to a question. answer A verbal language entity is a language entity that is manifested through sound. verbal language entity A page number is the count of a page in a sequence of pages. page number A linear position is the position of some object against a linear positioning system. linear position A sequence element position is the position of an element of a linear sequence. sequence element position A sequence start position is the start position for a sequence of characters. sequence start position A sequence end position is the position of the last character in a sequence of characters relative to some linear frame of reference. sequence end position The number of elements of a finite set of objects. count Uniform Resource Locator A Uniform Resource Locator or Universal Resource Locator (URL) is a specific character string that constitutes a reference to an Internet resource. URL An assocation is a relationship between two or more entities derived by some informational analysis. association A statistical association is any relationship between two measured quantities that renders them statistically dependent. statistical association A top value axis is a value axis that is spatially positioned to the top of the plot area. top value axis A bottom value axis is a value axis that is spatially positioned to the bottom of the plot area. bottom value axis A chart is a figure that displays the relationship among tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structures. chart A map is a a visual representation of an area that depicts the relationship between elements of that space. map A heatmap is a graphical representation of data where the individual values contained in a matrix are represented as colors. heatmap A streamgraph is a multi-line stacked graph that yields the appearance of continuous y-values across the x-axis. streamgraph A boxplot (box-and-whisker diagram) is a convenient way of graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their five-number summaries: the smallest observation (sample minimum), lower quartile (Q1), median (Q2), upper quartile (Q3), and largest observation (sample maximum). boxplot A geographic heatmap is a graphical representation of data over a geographic region where individual values are represented as colors. geographic heatmap A histogram is a graphical representation of data which consists of tabular frequencies, shown as adjacent rectangles, over discrete intervals (bins) , with an area equal to the frequency of the observations in the interval. histogram A measurement scale is a functional specification that specifies an allowed range of categories or values. measurement scale A nominal scale of measurement only specifies a limited set of categories. nomimal scale A binary scale is a measurement scale that specifies a choice between two values. binary scale A numeric scale of measurement is one that only specifies numeric values. numeric scale A decimal scale of measurement is one that only specifies decimal values. decimal scale An integer scale of measurement is one that only specifies integer values. integer scale An independent variable is a variable that may take on different values independent of other elements in a system. independent variable A dependent variable is one whose value changes as a consequence of changes in other values in the system. dependent variable A Gantt chart is a bar chart that illustrates a project schedule. Gantt chart A correlation is a statistical relationship involving dependence between two random variables or datasets. correlation A television program is a audiovisual media that is produced and broadcast using a television. television program A pie chart is a circular chart divided into sectors each of whose length is proportional to the quantity it represents. pie chart A matrix chart summarizes a multidimensional data set in a grid. matrix chart A network diagram consists of a set of vertices connected by edges. network diagram A block histogram contains an x-axis that is divided into bins which correspond to value ranges. Each item in the data set is drawn as a rectangular block, and the blocks are piled into the bins to show how many values in each range. block histogram A bubble chart contains circles whose area corresponds to a value. bubble chart A stack graph is a statistical graph which presents multiple series in which the distance between one series and another indicates the relative contribution to the total for any x-value. stack graph A treemap is a chart that fully partitions the area into a set of rectangles whose area represents its relative value. treemap A word tree is a chart that links phrases with contexts through a tree-like branching structure. word tree A textual chart is a chart containing text. textual chart word cloud A tag cloud is a visualization of word frequencies. tag cloud A phrase net diagram illustrates the relationship between different words used in a text. phrase net diagram A mereological chart is a chart that illustrates the parts in the context of the whole. mereological chart A numeric label is a number used as a label. numeric label A start position is the proximal position of an object relative to an origin in a linear system. start position An interval is a set of real numbers that includes all numbers between any two numbers in the set. interval A tree diagram is a hierarchical network diagram in which a root vertex is connected to one or more other vertices through a directed edge, which in turn may be connected to other vertices. tree diagram A flowchart is a diagram that represents an algorithm or process, showing the steps as boxes of various kinds, and their order by connecting these with arrows. flowchart A Venn diagram is a chart that illustrates all possible logical relations between a finite collection of sets as overlapping circles. venn diagram A dendrogram is a tree diagram used to illustrate the arrangement of the clusters produced by hierarchical clustering. dendrogram A default parameter is a parameter which has a default value. default parameter stop position An end position is the distal position of an object relative to an origin in a linear system. end position A standard operating procedure is a specification approved for use in specific environments. standard operating procedure A syllable is a verbal entity of language having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word. syllable A consonant is a verbal entity of language that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. consonant A vowel is a verbal entity of language that is pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. vowel A sign language (also signed language) is a language that involves manual communication and body language to convey meaning. This can involve simultaneously combining hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms or body, and facial expressions to fluidly express a speaker's thoughts. sign language A verbal language is a language that uses sounds to communicate. verbal language written language is a language that is communicated through a writing system. written language A gene-disease association is an association between a gene and a disease. gene-disease association A chemical-disease association is an association between a chemical and a disease. chemical-disease association A diagnostic opinion is an opinion resulting from a medical diagnostic procedure. diagnostic opinion An opinion is a belief that is the result of emotion or interpretation of facts. opinion age is the length of time that a person has lived or a thing has existed. age An ethnic group is a group of people whose members identify with each other through a common heritage, consisting of a common culture, including a shared language or dialect. ethnic group A syndrome is composed of a set of several clinically recognizable features, signs (observed by someone other than the patient), symptoms (reported by the patient), phenomena or characteristics that often occur together. syndrome A ratio is a relationship between two numbers of the same kind expressed arithmetically as a dimensionless quotient of the two which explicitly indicates how many times the first number contains the second. ratio A dose is the quantity of a chemical substance administered to a biological system. dose effective dose is the amount of a substance required to produce an effect on a predefined percentage of a population. effective dose An expected value (or e-value) is the weighted average of all possible values that a random variable can take on. expected value A prognosis is a proposition about the likely course of a disease, the chance of recovery or recurrence. prognosis A report is a textual document made that present focused, salient content to a specific audience. report A medical health record is a record of a single patient's medical history. medical health record A medical report is a report prepared by a health care practioner about test outcomes or health status of an individual. medical report A peer reviewed article is an article that has undergone peer-review and deemed acceptable for publication. peer reviewed article A major version number is a version of a software that exhibits a significant change in functionalilty from a prior version. major version number A minor version number is a version of a software that exhibits minor features or significant fix from a prior version. minor version number A revision number is a version of a software in which bugs have been fixed from a prior version. revision number A morpheme is the smallest semantically meaningful unit in a language. morpheme study protocol A study design is a protocol for the proper execution of a study which normally requires a carefullly crafted research question or hypothesis and at least one variable under observation and observed values for that variable. study design A recipe is a set of instructions that describe how to prepare or make something. recipe An experimental protocol is an action specification with respect to the design and implementation of experiments. In addition to providing a detailed set of procedures and lists of required equipment and instruments, experimental protocols often include information on safety precautions, the calculation of results and reporting standards, including statistical analysis and rules for predefining and documenting excluded data to avoid bias. experimental protocol A reason is a justification that specifies the motive for an action or a determination. reason character offset The ordinal position of a character in a sequence of characters. character position The position of the first character in a word as an offset from the first character of the text in which it is found. word start position word end position is the position of the last character in a word as an offset from the first character of the text in which it is found. word end position A population is all the organisms that both belong to the same group or species and live in the same geographical area. population A human population refers to a collection of human beings. human population A group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence. family A community is a sizeable social unit that shares common values. community speculation is an opinion based on incomplete evidence. speculation A control group is a group of individuals that are not subject to an intervention of interest, but rather serve as a baseline to compare the outcomes in the intervention group. control group An intervention group is a group of individuals that are subject to an intervention. intervention group controlled variable extraneous variable A control variable that is believed to alter the dependent or independent variables, but may not actually be the focus of the experiment. So that variable will be kept constant or monitored to try to minimise its effect on the experiment. control variable text span start position is the position (offset) of the first character of a text span in relation the text it is from. text span start position text span end position is the position (offset) of the last character of a text span in relation the text it is from. text span end position selector A text span is a subset of contiguous sequence of characters of a textual entity. text span A t-statistic is a ratio of the departure of an estimated parameter from its notional value and its standard error. t-statistic A microarray probe set identifier is an identifier for a set of probe pairs selected to represent expressed sequences on an array. microarray probe set identifier A gene expression value is a measured value obtained from a gene expression experiment. gene expression value A differential gene expression ratio is the ratio of gene expression values from a test sample compared to a control sample. differential gene expression ratio A genotype is a functional specification of a biological entity in terms of its genetic composition (or lack thereof). genotype A vocabulary is a collection of terms. vocabulary A t-statistic based increased differential gene expression is a differential gene expression ratio in which the t-statistic is greater than zero. t-statistic based increased differential gene expression A t-statistic based decreased differential gene expression is a differential gene expression ratio in which the t-statistic is less than zero. t-statistic based decreased differential gene expression A date of database submission refers to the moment in time in which some information was submitted/received to a database system. date of database submission concentration is the amount of substance per unit volume of a solution concentration pH is a measure of the activity of the (solvated) hydrogen ion. pH is defined as the decimal logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity, aH+, in a solution. pH electronic configuration electronic structure is the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals. electronic structure the electron configuration of the neon atom is 1s2 2s2 2p6. A crystal structure is the arrangement of atoms or molecules in a crystalline liquid or solid. crystal structure biological pathway A pathway is an effective specification that outlines a set of actions that forms a way to achieve an objective. pathway A central tendency measure is a central value or a typical value for a probability distribution. centrality measure arithmeritic mean average A mean is the central tendency of a collection of numbers taken as the sum of the numbers divided by the size of the collection. mean A median is the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. median A mode is the value that appears most often in a set of data. mode A sum is the result of adding a set of values together. sum min A minimal value is smallest value of an attribute for the entities in the defined set. minimal value max A maximal value is largest value of an attribute for the entities in the defined set. maximal value A count of the instances of a class or members in a collection. member count A union is a list of all of the values of an attribute for the entities in the defined set. union An intersection is a list of only the values of an attribute for the entities in the defined set where all entities have that value. intersection ordered list A sequence is an ordered list of entities. Like a set, it contains members (also called elements, or terms). sequence For example, (M, A, R, Y) is a sequence of letters that differs from (A, R, M, Y), as the ordering matters, and (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. A gene-variant disease association in which a mutation in the gene/protein results in the development or maintenance of the disease. gene-disease association linked with causal mutation gene-disease association arising from a therapeutic role of the gene/protein A gene disease association in which the gene is a therapeutic marker for the disease. therapeutic gene-disease association A gene-disease association in which the gene/protein is involved in the etiology or maintenance of the disease. gene-disease biomarker association gene variant-disease association A gene-disease association in which a sequence variation (a mutation, a SNP) is associated with the disease. gene-disease association linked with genetic variation A gene-disease association in which the disease phenotype is associated with an altered expression of the gene. gene-disease association linked with altered gene expression A gene-disease association in which the disease phenotype is associated with post-translational modifications in the protein product. gene-disease association linked with post-translational modification methylation or phosphorylation of protein product number of objects produced is a count of objects that were produced in some process. number of objects produced number of objects consumed is a count of objects that were consumed in some process. number of objects consumed A difference in number of objects produced is a count of the number of objects produced with respect to a second variable (space, time, etc) difference in number of objects produced An increase in the number of objects produced is the positive value of a difference in number of objects produced. increase in number of objects produced An decrease in the number of objects produced is the negative value of a difference in number of objects produced. decrease in number of objects produced user account allows a user to authenticate to system services and be granted authorization to access them. user account An annotation is a written explanatory or critical description, or other in-context information (e.g., pattern, motif, link), that has been associated with data or other types of information. annotation A comment is a verbal or written remark often related to an added piece of information, or an observation or statement. comment An audio recording is an electrical or mechanical inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music, or sound effects. audio recording An issue is a single instance of a periodically published journal, magazine, or newspaper. issue A slideshow is a visual presentation of information contained within a collection of slides. slideshow dbxref A database cross-reference is an association between one data item and another. database cross-reference An exact cross-reference is a database cross-reference in which one entity is equivalent to the other based on all the entitie's attributes (minus the source). exact cross-reference A statement is a proposition that is either (a) a meaningful declarative sentence that is either true or false, or (b) that which a true or false declarative sentence asserts. statement A slope or gradient of a line describes its steepness, incline, or grade. A higher slope value indicates a steeper incline. Slope is normally described by the ratio of the "rise" divided by the "run" between two points on a line. slope A software process identifier is an identifier for a software process in some operating system. software process identifier A database row is a row that is part of a database table. database row a SADI semantic web service is a semantic web service that follows the SADI specification sadi SADI semantic web service http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SADI a semantic web service is a web service that provides a formal, machine understanble description of its functionality. semantic web service a REST web service is a web service that provides functionality according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) specification. REST web service http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/REST a SOAP web service is a web service that implements Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). SOAP web service http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SOAP media are audo/visual/audiovisual modes of communicating information for mass consumption. media history is a sequence of past events. history A structural motif is a pattern in a structure formed by a spatial arrangement of objects (e.g. atoms). structural motif registry A catalog is a systemic collection of items of the same type. catalog Likelihood is the hypothetical probability that an event that has already occurred would yield a specific outcome. likelihood Log likelihood is the natural logarithm of the likelihood function log likelihood z-value, z-score, normal score, standardadized variable. A standard score is the (signed) number of standard deviations an observation or datum is above the mean. standard score an interval is a set of real numbers with the property that any number that lies between two numbers in the set is also included in the set. interval The set of all numbers x satisfying 0<=x<=1 is an interval which contains 0 and 1, as well as numbers between them. an open interval is an interval that does not include its endpoints. open interval (0,1) is an open interval that is greater than 0 and less than 1. A closed interval is an interval that includes its endpoints, and is denoted with square brackets. closed interval [0,1] is a closed interval that is greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1. drug-pathway association a chemical-pathway association is an association between a chemical and a pathway. chemical-pathway association a left open interval is an interval in which there is no element that is smaller than all other elements. left open interval a right open interval is an interval in which there is no element that is greater than all other elements. right open interval a right closed interval is an interval in which there is a real number that is larger than all of its elements. right closed interval a left closed interval is an interval in which there is a real number that is smaller than all its elements. left closed interval a pharmacokinetic pathway is a metabolic pathway which describes the metabolism of a drug molecule. pharmacokinetic pathway a pharmacodynamic pathay is a regulatory pathway in which a drug molecule regulates the activity of one or more components organized in a pathway. pharmacodynamic pathway a chemical-gene assocation is an assocation between a chemical and a gene. chemical-gene assocation set item is an item in a set. set item a collection item is an item in a collection. collection item a list item is an item in a list. list item an ordered list item is an item in an ordered list. ordered list item An ovopub is an information content entity that contains and links to one or more resources and/or statements, including those describing its provenance, and is itself a dereferenceable resource. ovopub+ ovopub A collection ovopub is an ovopub that contains and links to one or more assertion subgraphs and/or ovopubs, as well as statements describing its provenance. It is used to share a specific set of items or restrict a search to the resources contained therein. collection ovopub An assertion ovopub is an ovopub that contains and links to an assertion subgraph with one or more statements that may be true or false, as well as statements describing its provenance. assertion ovopub the date at which an information content entity was made public. date of issue an ordered list of authors. author list an ordered list is a list in which items are sequentially ordered. ordered list a middle name is a name assigned to an individual that is not the first or last name. middle name a middle initial is an abbreviated middle name. middle initial a telephone number is an identifier used to connect to a physical device capable of transfering voice or data over a network. telephone number a cellular phone number is a number to connect to a mobile device cellular phone number a fax number is a number to connect to fax device fax number IP address an IP number is an number to connect to a device on the internet. IP number an email address is an identifier to send mail to particular electronic mailbox. email address a work phone number is the number to connect to an phone at a place of work. work phone number a home phone number is the number to connect to an phone at a place of residence. home phone number A protein expression value is a quantity obtained from a protein expression experiment. protein expression value CNV copy number variation refers to the number of deletions/duplications of a DNA region as compared to some reference state. copy number variation metadata is data that provides information about data. metadata A diagnosis is the result of a medical investigation to identify a disorder from its signs and symptoms. diagnosis dag a directed acyclic graph or DAG is a network digram that contains directed edges in which nodes may have multiple parents, but there are no cycles. directed acyclic graph an arc is a closed segment of a differentiable curve. arc an edge is a line connecting two graph vertices. edge vertex a node or vertex is a point in a graph. node epimer association A gene-disease association in which a gene mutation is known to modify the clinical presentation of the disease. gene-disease association linked with modifying mutation A gene-disease association in which a germline mutation in the gene predisposes to the development of the disease, and it is necessary but not sufficient for the manifestation of the disease. gene-disease association linked with susceptibility mutation A gene-variant disease association in which a germline mutation in the gene/protein results in the development or maintenance of the disease, and it may be passed on to offspring. gene-disease association linked with germline causal mutation A gene-variant disease association in which a somatic mutation in the gene/protein results in the development or maintenance of the disease, and it may not be passed on to offspring. gene-disease association linked with somatic causal mutation A gene-variant disease association in which a somatic mutation in the gene modifies the clinical presentation of the disease, and it may not be passed on to offspring. gene-disease association linked with somatic modifying mutation A gene-variant disease association in which a germline mutation in the gene modifies the clinical presentation of the disease, and it may be passed on to offspring. gene-disease association linked with germline modifying mutation A gene-disease association in which the fusion between two different genes (promotor and/or other coding DNA regions) is associated with the disease. fusion gene-disease association A gene-disease association in which the gene is included in a chromosomal rearrangement associated with a particular manifestation of the disease. gene-disease association linked with chromosomal rearrangement a gene-disease association that is linked with some genomic alteration gene-disease association linked with genomic alterations DisGeNET Disease specificity is a measure of disease coverage. It is calculated from the negative base 2 log of the ratio of number of diseases associated to the total number of diseases. The measure is described here: http://www.disgenet.org/web/DisGeNET/menu/dbinfo#specificity DisGeNET disease specificity The DisGeNET pleiotropy index is a measure of specificity as it pertains to classes of disease. The disease pleotropy index is computed from the ratio of the number of disease classes associated with an entity over the total number of disease classes multplied by 100. The measure is defined here: http://www.disgenet.org/web/DisGeNET/menu/dbinfo#pleiotropy DisGeNET Pleiotropy Index A week is a period of 7 consecutive days. week Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume. specific gravity The amount of change accumulated per unit time. rate of change Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time frequency Speed is the rate of change of an object's position. speed The rate of change of an object's position and the direction of that change velocity A slide is an visual representation meant to communicate some information. slide A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city or country. statute A legal document proposing or enacting a law or a group of laws. legislation A legal document is a formally executed written document that can be formally attributed to its author, records and formally expresses a legally enforceable act, process, or contractual duty, obligation, or right, and therefore evidences that act, process, or agreement. legal document A brief is a written legal document used in various legal adversarial systems that is presented to a court arguing why one party to a particular case should prevail. brief book section A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature. bill a versioned dataset is a dataset with a particular release date or release number. versioned dataset a protein family is a collection of proteins that share a common evolutionary origin, reflected by their related function and similarity in composition or structure. protein family a unigene cluster is a collection of transcripts (ESTs and mRNAs) that map to a particular genomic region. cluster of transcripts unigene cluster a gene symbol is a short name assigned to a gene. gene symbol a statement of consequence is a statement concerning the result or effect of an action or condition. statement of consequence a notation is a series or system of written symbols used to represent numbers, amounts, or elements. notation a notation to describe a chemical entity chemical notation InCHI notation sequence variation notation The HGVS (human genome variation society) notation is a notation to specify a sequence variation in dna, rna, proteins, and other biomolecules. hgvs notation an ontology is a formal specification of entities, their attributes and relationships. ontology evidence is the body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid. evidence A terminology is a set of terms used for a specified application. terminology Density (volumetric mass density) is the quantity of mass per unit volume of a substance. density The surface area of a is a measure of the total area that the surface of the object occupies. surface area The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions. aspect ratio A percentage is a number that is a ratio expressed as a fraction of 100. It is denoted using the percent sign "%". percentage A quantile is a quantity that divides the range of a probability distribution into continuous intervals with equal probabilities, or dividing the observations in a sample in the same way. quantile A percentile (or a centile) is a quantile that divides the given probability distribution, or sample, into 100 equal-sized intervals. percentile a replicate is an object that is a facsimile, reproduction, or copy of another item. replicate replicates a collection of replicates is a collection composed of items that are a facsimile, reproduction, or copy of other items in the collection. a collection of replicates a duplicate is an object that is an exact copy of another item duplicate duplicates a collection of duplicates is a collection composed of items that are an exact copy of other items in the collection. a collection of duplicates a tensor is a n-dimensional array. tensor rank 1 tensor a vector is a rank 1 tensor that is described by n-dimension of scalars. vector rank 0 tensor a scalar is a rank 0 tensor and is an element of a field that is used to define a vector space. scalar a vector space is a set of vectors. vector space rank 2 tensor a matrix is a rank 2 tensor. It is represented as a rectangular array or table of numbers, symbols, or expressions arranged in rows and columns. matrix a rank nonzero tensor is a tensor with a rank greater than zero. rank nonzero tensor biological data is scientific data relevant to biology. biological data genetic data is data pertaining to genetics. genetic data A PDB chain identifier is a alphabetical label to identify a molecule in a structure provided by the Protein DataBank . PDB chain identifier A PDB record identifier is an identifier for a PDB generated record. PDB record identifier evolutionary lineage is a sequence of species, that form a line of descent, each new species the direct result of speciation from an immediate ancestral species. evolutionary lineage family history is the systematic narrative and research of past events relating to a specific family, or specific families. family history generation number is a count of the number of biological reproduction events elapsed from some starting reference point. generation number bioinformatic data is data genereated or used for computer-based investigations of biological phenomena. bioinformatic data A sequence alignment is the character-based alignment of sequences using some method. sequence alignment A multiple sequence alignment is a sequence alignment involving more than two sequences. multiple sequence alignment A pairwise sequence alignment is the alignment of exactly 2 sequences. pairwise sequence alignment medical data is data of interest to medicine. medical data A drug regulatory authority is a regulatory authority which acts to control what substances may be used to treat individuals. drug regulatory authority A biochemical pathway specifies a series of biochemical modifications and transformations towards achieving some biological outcome. biochemical pathway A chemical reaction pathway specifies a series of chemical reactions towards producing some chemical product. chemical reaction pathway A chemical synthesis pathway is a pathway involved in the assembly of a chemical. chemical synthesis pathway A chemical degradation pathway is a pathway involved in the disassembly of a chemical. chemical degradation pathway A sequence profile is provides the preference for a character at each position of an abstracted sequence. sequence profile A metabolic pathway is a series of biochemical reactions that begins with one or more substrates and ends with one or more products. metabolic pathway A regulatory pathway is a series of biochemical reactions that lead to the increase or decrease of activity of participating molecular components. regulatory pathway A medical history is a record of the events of a recipient of medical care. medical history A molecular structure file is a file that contains a description of molecular structure. molecular structure file A chemical datum is a scientific data item which conforms to some specification, either for how it is calculated or for how it is measured, and is commonly used in the domain of chemistry to name and differentiate different numeric properties (both calculated and measured) which are about chemical entities. chemical data CHEMINF:000123 A PDB file is a molecular structure file specified by the Protein DataBank (PDB). PDB file A collection of 3D molecular structure models is just that. collection of 3d molecular structure models sio-subset-ice.owl