---
title: "R Markdown exercise"
author: "Andrew Edwards"
date: "23/07/2021"
output:
html_document:
fontsize: 12pt
---
# Simple R Markdown exercise
Run this code by clicking the `knitr` button in RStudio or
`rmarkdown::render("rmark-exercise.Rmd")` in R.
To understand what is happening you should compare the code in the
`rmark-exercise.Rmd` file with the resulting output in the `rmark-exercise.html`
file. Extra comments to help your understanding appear in the `.Rmd` file but do
not show up in the resulting `.html` file, so do make sure to look at both.
```{r setup}
# This option sets the R output in your document to not have ## before it, which
# is the default. You can customise pretty much anything (see the R Markdown
# book).
knitr::opts_chunk$set(comment = "")
```
## Generate data
First we'll need some libraries:
```{r rmarklibs}
library(kableExtra)
library(tibble)
library(xtable)
```
If you do not have any of them then install them by typing, for example,
```{r packages, eval=FALSE}
install.packages(kableExtra)
```
in your R console (or install using RStudio if you use that).
Now generate some data:
```{r generate}
set.seed(42)
n <- 50 # sample size
x <- 1:n
y <- 10*x + rnorm(n, 0, 10)
n
```
We can automatically say that the maximum value of the data is `r max(y)`, or round it to a
whole number: the maximum value of the data is `r round(max(y))`.
## Show some of the data
Let's combine the data in a tibble (think of it as a data frame if you don't
know what that is):
```{r showdata}
data <- tibble::tibble(x, y)
data
```
(only the first 10 rows get printed here thanks to it being a tibble).
To have a basic table, we can do
```{r kable}
kable(data[1:10,])
```
To make it look a bit better we can add an option
```{r kable2}
kable(data[1:10,]) %>%
kable_material("striped")
```
You can set all sorts of formatting (and do it once at the start for all
tables) with the `kable` and `kableExtra` packages (see the R Markdown book), so
don't worry about formatting for now.
## Plot then fit a regression data
Now to plot the data:
```{r plot}
plot(x, y)
```
To fit and then print the summary regression output from R:
```{r regression}
fit <- lm(y ~ x)
print(summary(fit))
```
And for a report we can produce a simple table (including a caption) of output and the regression fit:
```{r fit}
kable(coefficients(summary(fit)),
caption = "Linear regression fit.") %>%
kable_material("striped")
```
And create a plot:
```{r plotfit}
plot(x, y)
abline(fit, col="red")
```
## Now, go back and change the data
The *big* feature of dynamically generating reports is when you go back and
change or update the input data. For example, changing the data in the above
example and then re-running it to redo the report. The best way to demonstrate
this is for you to do it in the Exercise.
See the main document for what to do with this file for the Exercise.
## Automating text
Once you've done the Exercise, you can even get a bit clever with your writing
by including an R `ifelse` statement to somewhat automate the text, for example:
So the maximum value of $y$ is `r round(max(y))`, which is
`r ifelse(max(y)>400, paste("greater than"), paste("less than"))` 400.
But you have to be careful and think about all possibilities -- what if
$y=399.9$?