~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Nintendo DS NSBMD Model Format Docs
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
This is documentation for the binary format of the NSB__ files (NSBMD, NSBTX,
etc.) used for 3D models, animations, etc. in Nintendo DS games.
You will need the GBATEK docs on the NDS GPU handy while reading:
.
DOCUMENTATION IS BASED ON REVERSE ENGINEERING. ASSUME IT IS SPECULATIVE,
INCOMPLETE, AND CONTAINS ERRORS.
Documented formats:
NSBMD (models, textures, palettes)
NSBTX (textures, palettes)
NSBCA (skeletal animations)
NSBTP (pattern animations)
NSBTA (material animations)
Undocumented formats:
NSBMA
NSBVA
Previous documentation:
kiwi.ds NSBMD docs
lowlines Nitro docs
Gericom's EveryFileExplorer (Source Code)
This document is based on practical experience implementing a viewer:
.
Terminology
===========
I have heard the etymology NSBMD = "New Super Mario Bros. Model Data".
All the names in this document (eg. Mesh, BoneMatrix, etc.) have been invented
for expository purposes.
Conventions
===========
All data is littleendian.
u8, u16, and u32 are unsigned 8, 16, and 32bit unsigned integers, respectively.
num(X.Y.Z) is a fixedpoint number. The next (X+Y+Z) bits should be read
and interpreted as an unsigned integer (if X is 0) or a signed twoscomplement
integer (if X is 1). The denoted number is this integer times 2^(Z).
Example: num(1.19.12) is the number type used by the DS GPU. Note it is
u32sized. In it, 0x1000 represents the number 1.
Arrays are written type[length], ex. u8[3] is an array of three u8s.
Arrays of unknown length are written type[]. You can index into these if you
have an index, but you can't iterate over them.
Offsets usually have names ending with _off. Offset are always in bytes. I'll
alway say what an offset is relative to. Add the offset to the location of
whatever its relative to to find the actual data.
Bitfields are written like this
u8 {
low_nibble: bits(0,4)
high_nibble: bits(4,8)
}
Matrix conventions are as in mathematics: Vectors are columnvectors.
Application of a matrix M to a vector v is Mv. Matrix multiplication AB is "B
followed by A". (Note: this is the opposite convention of the one in the
GBATEK docs.)
Common Idioms
=============
These elements occur in multiple places.
A Name is a humanreadable, nullpadded, 16byte ASCII string.
Name {
name: u8[16]
}
A NameList(T) (T is some type) is a list of Ts, each T having a Name. Usually T
is going to be an offset to where the actual data for that element is located.
Names appear to always be unique within a NameList.
NameList(T) {
dummy: u8
count: u8 (number of elements)
size: u16 (total size of this NameList in bytes)
Unknown {
UnknownHeader {
subheader_size: u16 (total size of this UnknownHeader in bytes?)
unknown_size: u16 (total size of this Unknown in bytes?)
unknown: u32
}
unknown: u32[count]
}
element_size: u16 (size of T in bytes)
data_section_size: u16
data: T[count]
names: Name[count]
}
Containers
==========
A Container is the toplevel object in the binary format of a NSB__ file. A
Container holds subfiles. Subfiles, in turn, hold individual models, animations,
etc.
Containers and subfiles start with a fourbyte stamp (magic number) that
identifies what kind of data it stores.
Container {
Header {
stamp: u8[4] (depends on kind of Container, see below)
bom: u16 (byte order mark, =0xfeff)
version: u16 (version 2?)
filesize: u32
header_size: u16 (size of this Header?; always 16)
num_subfiles: u16
}
subfile_offs: u32[num_subfiles]
(each u32 points to a subfile relative to the Container)
}
The different kinds of Containers follow:
An NSBMD contains MDLs (usually one) and TEXs (usually zero or one).
An NSBTX contains TEXs.
An NSBCA contains JNTs.
An NSBTP contains PATs.
An NSBTA contains SRTs.
NSBMD {
Container (expected stamp = "BMD0")
}
NSBTX {
Container (expected stamp = "BTX0")
}
NSBCA {
Container (expected stamp = "BCA0")
}
NSBTP {
Container (expected stamp = "BTP0")
}
NSBTA {
Container (expected stamp = "BTA0")
}
Models
======
An MDL is a subfile containing Models.
MDL {
stamp: u8[4] (= "MDL0")
filesize: u32 (total filesize of this MDL)
models: NameList(u32)
(each u32 gives the offset to a Model relative to this MDL)
}
A Model is 3D model. The process of drawing a Model consists of executing a list
of RenderCommands, which calculate skinning matrices, set material properties,
and draw the individual pieces of the Model (the Meshes).
Model {
filesize: u32 (size of Model+all its data?)
(all offsets are relative to this Model)
render_cmds_off: u32 (points to RenderCommandList)
materials_off: u32 (points to MaterialList)
meshes_off: u32 (points to MeshList)
inv_binds_off: u32 (points to InvBindMatrices)
unknown: u8[3]
num_bone_matrices: u8
num_materials: u8
num_meshes: u8
unknown: u8[2]
(used by certain rendering commands)
up_scale: num(1.19.12)
down_scale: num(1.19.12)
num_verts: u16
num_polys: u16 (num_tris + num_quads?)
num_tris: u16
num_quads: u16
BoundingBox (12 bytes total)
unknown: u8[8]
BoneList
}
BoundingBox gives the model's bounding box?
TODO: verify.
BoundingBox {
x_min: num(1.3.12)
y_min: num(1.3.12)
z_min: num(1.3.12)
x_max: num(1.3.12)
y_max: num(1.3.12)
z_max: num(1.3.12)
}

A MeshList stores Meshes.
MeshList {
NameList(u32) (each u32 is the offset of a Mesh relative to this MeshList)
}
A Mesh contains actual vertex data in the form of a blob of NDS GPU commands. To
draw a Mesh, you just submit the blob of commands to the GPU.
Mesh {
dummy: u16
size: u16 (=16, possibly the size of Mesh?)
unknown: u32
cmds_off: u32 (relative to this Mesh)
cmds_len: u32
}
cmds_off points to a u8[cmds_len] blob containing the GPU commands.
A blob of GPU commands is stored as a sequence of packets. Each packet encodes
four GPU commands as a sequence of u32s. A GPU command is an 8bit opcode and
some number of u32 parameters. The first u32 in a packet gives the four opcodes
of the commands, followed by the parameters of the first command, then the
parameters of the second, etc.
See the GBATEK docs for more info about the binary format and semantics of GPU
commands.
Only certain commands appear in a Mesh. Here is a list:
NOP (0x0) MTX_RESTORE (0x14) MTX_SCALE (0x1b) BEGIN_VTXS (0x40)
END_VTXS (0x41) VTX_16 (0x23) VTX_10 (0x24) VTX_XY (0x25)
VTX_XZ (0x26) VTX_YZ (0x27) VTX_DIFF (0x28) TEXCOORD (0x22)
COLOR (0x20) NORMAL (0x21)

The RenderCommandList is the script that you run to draw the Model. Each render
command consists of a u8 opcode and some number of u8 parameters.
RenderCommandList {
loop {
RenderCommand {
opcode: u8
parameters: u8[n] (n depends on the opcode; see below)
}
if opcode == 1 {
break;
}
}
}
The low five bits of the opcode determine the operation to perform. The three
high bits modify the behavior of the operation.
Known render commands:
Nop (0x00, 0x40, 0x80)
0 parameters
Does nothing? Difference between opcodes is unknown.
End (0x01)
0 parameters
Marks the end of the RenderCommandList.
Unknown (0x02)
2 parameters
Load Matrix from Stack (0x03)
1 parameter
* stack slot to load from
Loads a stack matrix into the current matrix.
cur_matrix = matrix_stack[next_parameter()]
Bind Material (0x4, 0x24, 0x44)
1 parameter
* index of the material to bind
Bind a material for subsequent draw commands. Difference between opcodes is
unknown.
Draw Mesh (0x05)
1 parameter
* index of the Mesh to draw
Draws a Mesh.
Multiply Current Matrix with Bone Matrix (0x06, 0x26, 0x46, 0x66)
3 parameters if opcode == 0x06
4 parameters if opcode == 0x26 or 0x46
5 parameters if opcode == 0x66
* bone_idx: index of the BoneMatrix to multiply with
* parent_idx: apparently, the index of the parent of the bone from bone_idx
* unknown
* (if opcode & 0x40) stack slot to load from beforehand
* (if opcode & 0x20) stack slot to store to afterward
Multiplies the current matrix by a BoneMatrix. This is used to build the
localtoworld matrices out of the BoneMatrices. If the 0x40 bit of the opcode
is set, load a matrix from the stack beforehand. If the 0x20 bit is set, store
the matrix to the stack afterward.
bone_idx = next_parameter()
parent_idx = next_parameter()
unknown = next_parameter()
if opcode & 0x40 {
cur_matrix = matrix_stack[next_parameter()]
}
cur_matrix *= bone_matrices[bone_idx]
if opcode & 0x20 {
matrix_stack[next_parameter()] = cur_matrix
}
NOTE: If bone_idx is the index of bone B, then parent_idx will be the index of
the parent of B. I don't think it's used at all at runtime.
Unknown (0x07, 0x47)
1 parameter (2 for 0x47?)
Unknown (0x08)
1 parameter
Calculate Skinning Equation (0x09)
Parameters (variable number):
* store_index: the stack index at which to store the calculated matrix
* number of terms (determines how many parameters will follow)
loop number of term times {
* stack_index: index into the matrix stack to use as the localtoworld matrix
* inv_bind_idx: index into InvBindMatrices to use as the inverse bind matrix
* weight: stored normalized; divide by 256 to get the actual value
}
Calculates a matrix with the skinning equation
∑_B (weight for B) * (localtoworld for B) * (inverse bind for B)
This is the matrix applied to a vertex influenced by multiple bones. The
inverse bind matrices bring the vertex into the local space of each bone and
the localtoworld transforms send it to its world space position.
By contrast, if a vertex is only influenced by a single bone, then its
position will just be stored (in the Mesh) in the space of that bone, so
there's no need for an InvBindMatrix to bring it into the correct space. So
this command is only used when there are vertices influenced by multiple
bones.
cur_matrix = 0
store_index = next_parameter()
num_terms = next_parameter()
loop num_terms times {
term = matrix_stack[next_parameter]
term *= inv_bind_matrices[next_parameter()].matrix
term *= next_parameter() / 256
cur_matrix += term
}
matrix_stack[store_index] = cur_matrix
Scale Up (0x0b)
Scale Down (0x2b)
0 parameters
Scales the current matrix by the value Model.up_scale (resp.
Model.down_scale).
cur_matrix *= Model.up_scale (or Model.down_scale if opcode == 0x2b)
Unknown (0x0c)
2 parameters
Unknown (0x0d)
2 parameters

A MaterialList contains Materials, and what texture/palette Name they should be
paired with.
MaterialList {
texture_pairings_off: u16 (relative to this MaterialList)
palette_pairings_off: u16 (relative to this MaterialList)
NameList(u32) (each u32 is the offset of a Material relative to this MaterialList)
}
A Material is a bunch of GPU state (eg. colors, whether backface culling is
enabled, etc.) to be set when the Material is bound. It also determines the
texture/palette to use, though that isn't stored in this Material object itself.
Material {
dummy: u16
size: u16 (size of this Material in bytes)
(the following u32s give the parameters to GPU commands to be submitted
when this Material is bound)
dif_amb: u32 (parameter to DIF_AMB (opcode 0x30))
spe_emi: u32 (parameter to SPE_EMI (opcode 0x31))
polygon_attr: u32 (parameter to POLYGON_ATTR (opcode 0x29);)
unknown: u32 (possibly parameter to SHININESS (opcode 0x34)??)
teximage_params: u32 (parameter for TEXIMAGE_PARAMS (opcode 0x2a); see below)
unknown: u32
unknown: u32
texture_width: u16
texture_height: u16
(TODO: the remaining fields are unknown but should comprise at least the
texcoord transform matrix, if used)
}
teximage_params is the u32 parameter to the GPU command TEXIMAGE_PARAMS (opcode
0x2a). See the GBATEK documentation for details. Only some of its fields are
stored here; the others are zeroed out. They are stored in the teximage_params
in the Texture object. These two teximage_param u32s are ored together to give
the final argument to TEXIMAGE_PARAMS. The fields stored here are:
u32 {
repeat_s: bits(16,17)
repeat_t: bits(17,18)
mirror_s: bits(18,19)
mirror_t: bits(19,20)
texcoord_transform_mode: bits(30,32)
}
TexturePairings and PalettePairings pair Materials with the Names of the
textures/palettes they should use. The precise mechanism by which a Name is
resolved to an actual texture or palette is unknown but it appears to be at
least partially controllable from game code. In the simplest case, there will be
a TEX in the same NSBMD as this Model, and you can look for a Texture/Palette
with the given Name there.
TexturePairingList {
NameList(MaterialIdxList)
(each Name gives a texture name that applies to all the Materials in the MaterialIdxList)
}
PalettePairingList {
NameList(MaterialIdxList)
(same as TexturePairingList, but for palettes obviously)
}
MaterialIdxList {
offset: u16 (points to a u8[count]; relative to this MaterialIdxList)
(each u8 is the index of a Material)
count: u8
dummy: u8
}
This somewhat unusual way of associating textures/palette Names with Materials
(as opposed to simply having a texture_name/palette_name field in the Material)
saves space when many Materials share texture/palette Names or have no
texture/palette. (Is this its only goal?)

A BoneList stores BoneMatrices.
BoneList {
NameList(u32) (each u32 points to a BoneMatrix; relative to this BoneList)
}
A BoneMatrix stores the localtoparent transform of some bone. A BoneMatrix is
a TRS transform (that is, it consists of a scaling, followed by a rotation,
followed by a translation). It is determined by seven TRS properties
translation X rotation scale X
translation Y scale Y
translation Z scale Z
Translation and scale components are real numbers. The rotation is a 3x3 matrix.
The binary coding for rotation matrices tends to favor true rotations (ie.
orthogonal matrices), although it is possible to encode a nonrotation matrix as
the "rotation" of a TRS transform.
When a Model is animated by an Animation, the only thing that changes are its
BoneMatrices.
NOTE: a Model doesn't contain any actual bones or skeleton information (but see
the parent_idx parameter to render command 0x06); that has all been compiled
down to an imperative list of rendering commands that build up all the necessary
skinning matrices directly. The BoneMatrices just store the data from the bones
that are needed by these rendering commands.
BoneMatrix {
u16 {
t: bits(0,1) (controls if there's a translation)
rm: bits(1,2) (controls if there's a rotation given by matrix entries)
s: bits(2,3) (controls if there's a scale)
rp: bits(3,4) (controls if there's a rotation given by a PivotMatrix)
(these are used for the rotation matrix if rp == 1)
form: bits(4,8)
neg_one: bits(8,9)
neg_c: bits(9,10)
neg_d: bits(10,11)
ignored: bits(11,16)
}
(used for rotation matrix; it's here for alignment reasons)
m0: num(1.3.12)
(translation; default is (0 0 0))
if t == 0 {
Translation {
x: num(1.19.12)
y: num(1.19.12)
z: num(1.19.12)
}
}
(rotation; default is identity matrix)
if rp == 1 {
a: num(1.3.12)
b: num(1.3.12)
(these determine a PivotMatrix; see below)
} else if rm == 0 {
ms: num(1.3.12)[8]
(the rotation matrix is given by
[ m0 ms[2] ms[5] ]
[ ms[0] ms[3] ms[6] ]
[ ms[1] ms[4] ms[7] ]
)
}
(scale; default is (1 1 1))
if s == 0 {
Scale {
x: num(1.19.12)
y: num(1.19.12)
z: num(1.19.12)
}
}
}
If rp == 1, the six values
form neg_one neg_c neg_d a b
determine the rotation matrix as though it were given by a PivotMatrix; see the
definition of PivotMatrix in the animation section.

InvBindMatrices are 4x4 matrices used in computing the skinning matrix for
render command 0x09. If a Model doesn't use this command, it doesn't need to
have any, but many Models have them anyway.
InvBindMatrices {
InvBindMatrix[]
}
InvBindMatrix {
matrix: num(1.19.12)[12] (3x4 matrix; columnmajor order)
unknown: num(1.19.12)[9] (often seems to be the linear part of matrix; used for normals maybe?)
}
Only the upper 3x4 block of the 4x4 inverse bind matrix is stored; the final row
is always (0 0 0 1). (NOTE: the NDS GPU can do math on 3x4 matrices directly.)
Animations
==========
A JNT is a subfile containing Animations.
JNT {
stamp: u8[4] (= "JNT0")
filesize: u32 (total filesize of this JNT)
animations: NameList(u32)
(each u32 gives the offset to an Animation relative to this JNT)
}
An Animation is a skeletal animation of a Model. It changes the values of the
BoneMatrices in a Model over time. All animations are framebased, so "time"
always means "frame number".
An Animation contains a collection of Tracks. A Track targets one of the
BoneMatrices in a Model and tells you what its value should be at each time.
Animation {
unknown: u8[4] (="J\0AC", is this a stamp?)
num_frames: u16
num_tracks: u16
unknown: u32
pivot_data_off: u32 (points to PivotMatrices; relative to this Animation)
basis_matrices_off: u32 (points to BasisMatrices; relative to this Animation)
track_offs: u16[num_tracks]
(each offset points to an AnimationTrack; relative to this Animation)
}
PivotMatrices and BasisMatrices store rotation matrices that will be used in the
curve data below
PivotMatrices {
PivotMatrix[]
}
BasisMatrices {
BasisMatrix[]
}
A Track consists of channels. A channel is a connection between one of the seven
TRS properties and a Curve, saying what the value of that TRS property should be
over time.
OPEN QUESTION: if a track doesn't have a channel for a particular TRS property,
what should the value of that property be? (eg. should it retain the value it
has in the Model?)
Track {
(this u16 determine which channels are present, and, if they are present,
whether their Curve is constant or sampled (see below))
u16 {
no_channels: bits(0,1)
no_translation_channels: bits(1,3)
translation X is constant: bits(3,4)
translation Y is constant: bits(4,5)
translation Z is constant: bits(5,6)
no_rotation_channel: bits(6,8)
rotation is constant: bits(8,9)
no_scale_channels: bits(9,11)
scale X is constant: bits(11,12)
scale Y is constant: bits(12,13)
scale Z is constant: bits(13,14)
}
dummy: u8
target_index: u8 (the index of the BoneMatrix this track targets?)
if no_channels {
return;
}
if no_translation_channels == 0 {
Curve (translation X)
Curve (translation Y)
Curve (translation Z)
}
if no_rotation_channel == 0 {
Curve (rotation)
}
if no_scale_channels == 0 {
Curve (scale X)
Curve (scale Y)
Curve (scale Z)
}
}
A Curve is a function mapping time to values (either a real number for
translation/scale components, or a 3x3 matrix for rotations). It can either be
constant, in which case it is defined by a single value
^

_____________


'>
time
or sampled, in which case it is defined by a set of discrete (frame number,
sample value) pairs.
^ .
 . 
  . 
    .
    
'++++>
time
OPEN QUESTION: how should a sampled curve be evaluated at a frame between two
sample times?
Curve {
if curve is constant {
(the constant value of the curve follows; depends on the type of
channel)
if translation channel {
constant_value: num(1.19.12)
}
if rotation channel {
constant_value: RotMatrixIdx
ignored: u16 (padding for alignment, probably)
}
if scale channel {
constant_value: num(1.19.12)
unknown: num(1.19.12)
}
} else {
(a sampled curve; see explanation below)
u32 {
start_frame: bits(0,16)
end_frame: bits(16,28)
width: bits(28,30)
log_rate: bits(30,32)
}
samples_off: u32 (relative to the containing Animation)
}
}
A sampled curve is always sampled at a fixed rate between two endpoints: one
sample is stored at each of the frames
start_frame
start_frame + rate
start_frame + 2*rate
...
end_frame  2*rate
end_frame  rate
The rate is 2^(log_rate). Since the log_rate field is 2bits, the possible rates
are 1, 2, 4, and 8. I have never seen 8.
The total number of samples is therefore
num_samples = (end_frame  start_frame) / rate
ASSUMPTION: start_frame and end_frame are divisible by the rate.
samples_off points to the array of num_samples sample values. The format of a
sample value depends on the type of channel and the width field
if translation channel {
if width == 0 {
sample: num(1.19.12)
} else {
sample: num(1.3.12)
}
}
if rotation channel {
sample: RotMatrixIdx
}
if scale channel {
if width == 0 {
sample: num(1.19.12)
unknown: num(1.19.12)
} else {
sample: num(1.3.12)
unknown: num(1.3.12)
}
}
A RotMatrixIdx points to a rotation matrix stored in the PivotMatrices or
BasisMatrices arrays for this Animation. The highest bit tells you which array
it's in, and the low bits give the index into that array.
RotMatrixIdx {
u16 {
index: bits(0,15)
is_pivot: bits(15,16)
}
}
If is_pivot is set, use PivotMatrices[index]; otherwise, use
BasisMatrices[index].

A PivotMatrix encodes a rotation matrix in 3 u16s. It is good for representing
rotations where the axis of rotation is the X, Y, or Z axis.
PivotMatrix {
u16 {
form: bits(0,4)
neg_one: bits(4,5)
neg_c: bits(5,6)
neg_d: bits(6,7)
ignored: bits(7,16)
}
a: num(1.3.12)
b: num(1.3.12)
}
Let i = +1 if neg_one is unset; 1 if it is set
Let c = +a if neg_c is unset; a if it is set
Let d = +b if neg_d is unset; b if it is set
The final matrix then depends on form as
If form=0 If form=1 If form=2
[ i ] [ a c ] [ a c ]
[ a c ] [ i ] [ b d ]
[ b d ] [ b d ] [ i ]
If form=3 If form=4 If form=5
[ i ] [ a c ] [ a c ]
[ a c ] [ i ] [ b d ]
[ b d ] [ b d ] [ i ]
If form=6 If form=7 If form=8
[ i ] [ a c ] [ a c ]
[ a c ] [ i ] [ b d ]
[ b d ] [ b d ] [ i ]

A BasisMatrix encodes a rotation matrix in 5 u16s. It encodes an arbitrary
rotation by storing the 6 entries in the first two columns of the 3x3 matrix;
the third column is then uniquely determined (by the crossproduct).
BasisMatrix {
xs: u16[5]
}
The precise computation for the matrix is extremely odd. There is probably some
way to rewrite this function that makes it make sense. Credit for figuring this
out goes to MKDS Course Modifier.
Let ys = [xs[4], xs[0], xs[1], xs[2], xs[3]].
Let zs = [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0].
for i=0,1,2,3,4 {
zs[i] = ys[i].bits(3,16)
zs[5] <<= 3
zs[5] = ys[i].bits(0,3)
}
The elements of zs are 13bit numbers. Interpret them as num(1.0.12)s.
[ zs[1] ]
Let A = [ zs[2] ].
[ zs[3] ]
[ zs[4] ]
Let B = [ zs[0] ].
[ zs[5] ]
Let C = AxB (the crossproduct of A and B).
Then A, B, and C are the columns of the final matrix
[    ]
[ A B C ]
[    ]
Pattern Animations
==================
A PAT is a subfile containing PatternAnimations.
PAT {
stamp: u8[4] (= "PAT0")
filesize: u32 (total filesize of this PAT)
pattern_animations: NameList(u32)
(each u32 gives the offset to a PatternAnimation relative to this PAT)
}
A PatternAnimation is an animation that varies the texture/palette the Materials
in a Model use over time.
PatternAnimation {
unknown: u8[4]
num_frames: u16
num_texture_names: u8
num_palette_names: u8
texture_names_off: u16 (relative to this PatternAnimation)
palette_names_off: u16 (relative to this PatternAnimation)
tracks: NameList(Track)
}
texture_names_off points to a list of texture names that will be used by the
Tracks; similarly for pattern_names_off.
TextureNames {
Name[num_texture_names]
}
PaletteNames {
Name[num_palette_names]
}
Each Track targets a Material with the same Name as the Track, and tells you
when its texture/palette should change.
Track {
num_keyframes: u32
unknown: u16
offset: u16
(points to a Keyframe[num_keyframes]; relative to the containing PatternAnimation)
}
Each Keyframe says that the texture/palette Names should change to the given
values at the given frame. The values hold until they are changed at the next
Keyframe. A Track's array of Keyframes is sorted by frame.
Keyframe {
frame: u16
texture_idx: u8 (index into TextureNames to use as texture Name)
palette_idx: u8 (index into PaletteNames to use as palette Name)
}
Material Animations
===================
(Warning: This section is highly incomplete!)
An SRT is a subfile containing MaterialAnimations.
SRT {
stamp: u8[4] (= "SRT0")
filesize: u32 (total filesize of this SRT)
material_animations: NameList(u32)
(each u32 gives the offset to a MaterialAnimation relative to this SRT)
}
A MaterialAnimation is an animation that varies Material parameters in a Model.
For example, it can vary UV translation to do texture scrolling effects.
MaterialAnimation {
unknown: u8[4] ("M\0AT"?)
num_frames: u16
unknown: u16
tracks: NameList(Track)
}
Each Track targets a Material with the same Name as the Track, and animates its
parameters. A Track consists of 5 Channels.
Track {
unknown_channels: Channel[3]
(targets the Utranslation for texture UVs)
u_translation_channel: Channel
(targets the Vtranslation for texture UVs)
v_translation_channel: Channel
}
Channel {
num_frames: u16
dummy?: u8 (always 0?)
flags?: u8 (typically has one or two bits set, so possibly flags)
if flags == 16 {
offset: u32
} else {
unknown: u8[4]
}
}
For channels[3] and channels[4], if flags == 16, then offset points to a
num(1.10.5)[num_frames] array containing the values of the UV offset at each
frame.
Other cases are unknown.
Textures & Palettes
===================
A texture is a 2D array of texels. There are seven different texture formats on
the DS's GPU, numbered 17. Texture format 7 encodes actual colors in its
texels, but all the others must be used with a palette that determines the color
each texel value should have. For details of texturing on the DS and how to
decode textures, see the GBATEK documentation.
A TEX is a subfile containing textures and palettes. However, unlike the other
subfiles, it is not divided into independently stored objects. Instead, it holds
blocks of data that are shared by all the textures/palettes it contains. AIUI
game code would transfer the blocks into VRAM at load time and then be able to
use any of textures/palettes in the TEX.
TEX {
stamp: u8[4] (= "TEX0")
unknown: u32
unknown: u32
block1_len_shr_3: u16
textures_off: u16 (points to TextureList; relative to this TEX)
unknown: u32
block1_off: u32 (points to Block1; relative to this TEX)
block2_len_shr_3: u16
unknown: u16
unknown: u32
block2_off: u32 (points to Block2; relative to this TEX)
block3_off: u32 (points to Block3; relative to this TEX)
unknown: u32
block4_len_shr_3: u16 (points to Block4; relative to this TEX)
unknown: u16
palettes_off: u32 (points to PaletteList; relative to this TEX)
block4_off: u32
}
The lengths of data blocks are stored shifted right by 3 (that's what shr_3
means); shift them left by 3 to get the actual length.
Block1 stores texture data for all texture formats except 5.
Block1 {
u8[block1_len_shr_3 << 3]
}
Block2 and Block3 store data for textures with format 5. These are
blockcompressed textures: each 4x4 block of texels is compressed into one u32
and one u16. The data for a compressed texture is therefore two parallel arrays,
one of u32s and one of u16s. The former is stored in Block2, the latter in
Block3. For this reason, Block3 is always half the length of Block2 (in bytes)
and texture data at offset X into Block2 is at offset X/2 into Block3.
Block2 {
u8[block2_len_shr_3 << 3]
}
Block3 {
u8[block2_len_shr_3 << 2]
}
Block4 stores palette data.
Block4 {
u8[block4_len_shr_3 << 3]
}
A TextureList contains Textures.
TextureList {
NameList(Texture)
}
Texture {
teximage_params: u32
unknown: u32
}
teximage_params is the u32 parameter to the GPU command TEXIMAGE_PARAMS (opcode
0x2a). See the GBATEK documentation for details. Only some of its fields are
stored here; the others are zeroed out. They are stored in the teximage_params
in a Material that uses this Texture. These two teximage_param u32s are ored
together to give the final argument to TEXIMAGE_PARAMS. The fields stored here
are:
u32 {
offset_shr_3: bits(0,16) (shift left by 3 to get offset for Block1/2; by 2 for Block3)
w: bits(20,23) (8 << w = width in the Sdirection)
h: bits(23,26) (8 << h = height in the Tdirection)
format: bits(26,29) (texture format)
color0: bits(29,30) (whether color 0 is transparent; palette textures only)
}
A PaletteList contains Palettes.
PaletteList {
NameList(Palette)
}
Palette {
offset_shr_3: u16 (shift left by 3 to get the offset into Block4)
unknown: u16
}